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Language history and change

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Language history and change

  1. 2. Sir William Jones
  2. 3. During the 19th century, two centuries after Sir William insight. Study of the languages (philosogy) came into use to describe that common ancestor The original form. Indian sub- continent. Europe.
  3. 4. German English Dutch Danish Swedish Norwegian Etc. Gaelic Irish Welsh Etc. (Latin) Italian, Spanish French Portuguese Romanian ETC. (Ancient Greek) Greek Latvian Lithuanian Russian Polish Czech Bulgarian, Etc. (Sanskrit) Hindi Bengali Etc. Persian
  4. 5. This map shows the indo – european - languages
  5. 6. Indo-european
  6. 7. (Close to 1 billion of native speakers) (About 350 million. This language is used in different parts of the world.) (300 million of native speakers) (200 million) About 150 million each.
  7. 8. <ul><li>One way is by looking at records of an older generation. </li></ul>Look at the foollowing example: Sanskrit Latin Greek pitar pater pater bhratar frater phrather
  8. 9. Are cognates of Mutter Vater Freund English and modern German probably have a common ancestor.
  9. 10. <ul><li>The majority congnates retain the original sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Final vowels often disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>Voiceless sounds become voiced between vowels </li></ul><ul><li>stops become fricatives (under certain conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>consonants become voiceless at the end of words. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Language change 1 2 3
  11. 12. Is a result of Angles Saxons Jutes Those tribes spoke germanic language. Around 6 centuries
  12. 13. Mann man wif (woman) cild Child mete food drinca drink feohtan fight
  13. 14. Around 4 centuries This period began army court defense This words derives from Frensh.
  14. 15. Sound changes /x/ Nicht /nixt/ Night (the present day form) Old English Modern English hu:s Haws (“house”) wi:f wayf (“wife”)
  15. 16. <ul><li>The reversal of position in metathesis between non adjoining sounds. </li></ul>For example In the following examples Latin Spanish parabola palabra (word) periculum peligro (danger) miraculum milagro (miracle)
  16. 17. Syntactic changes The most noticiable change Involves “word order” <ul><li>Old English: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject can follow the verb </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. ferde he </li></ul><ul><li>The object can be place before the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. he hine geseah </li></ul><ul><li>Modern English: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject can’t follow the verb </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. He traveled </li></ul><ul><li>The object can’t be place before the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. He saw him </li></ul>
  17. 18. Lexical changes foin verily egad Many borrowed words that Old English had taken from other languages such as Latin and Greek are not used today
  18. 19. Into
  19. 21. <ul><li>Caused by wars </li></ul><ul><li>Invantions </li></ul><ul><li>cultural transmission </li></ul>

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