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1 Cataloging Children’s Materials Fiona B. Griswold LIS 507 April 24, 2009
ALA Guide to Cataloging Kids’2 Materials Intner, S. S., Fountain, J. F., & Gilchrist, J. E. (2006). Cataloging correctly for kids: An introduction to the tools. Chicago: American Library Association. First published in 1989.
History of Children’s Cataloging3 1966: Library of Congress (LC) introduced Annotated Card (AC) program, administered by the Cataloging of Children’s Materials Committee, which adapted cataloging processes to juvenile materials. Allows for the use of annotations, modified subject headings & some special classification options 1969: The LC practices are adopted as standard by RTSD. 1982: The Committee and Children’s Literature Section create ―Guidelines for Standardized Cataloging of Children’s Materials‖ which are adopted by RTSD. 1996: Last revision of the Guidelines
Definition of ―Children‖4 Guidelines were created to assist catalog users through 9th grade (or 15 years of age). Use of Guidelines for 10th-12th grades optional. However, LC recommends that, in libraries with juvenile collections, the Guidelines be used for all materials for PreK-12 if there are materials for teens of all levels.
How Children Search5 Prefer graphical interfaces Use natural language—not familiar with controlled vocabulary used in subject headings Just beginning to understand hierarchy Prefer a ―browse‖ search Most searching now done via computer terminal (either online or local catalog). Child-friendly interfaces being developed. Interesting example at: http://en.childrenslibrary.org/ the International Children’s Digital Library.
What This Means for Catalogers6 Always ask ―How would a child search for this item?‖ and provide appropriate access points. Use language that children can read & understand in subject headings and summaries. Use both broad and specific subject headings and popular and scientific terms to improve search success. Be aware of the ―aboutness‖ of a work for fiction and nonfiction and use subject headings to describe. Use summary notes written in natural language to improve keyword searches.
What This Means for Catalogers7 Apply consistent subject headings to all formats of same title (book, board book, DVD, etc.). Provide uniform title access point for all variations of a story (e.g., Cinderella). Provide series statement access for all works in a popular series (e.g., The Magic Treehouse).
Use of MARC Fields8 Appropriate fixed-field code should be used to identify the appropriate audience (can be specific if appropriate): j indicates appropriate through age 15 a (preschool), b (primary), c (grades 4-8) or d (grades 9-12) can be used to be more specific. Use of general material designation (GMD), subfield h of field 245 strongly encouraged for all materials apart from books.
More on MARC Fields9 Summary note (MARC field 520) also strongly encouraged as it is part of most AC programs. Language in summary should facilitate keyword search and use synonyms for words in title and subject headings. Target audience note (MARC field 521) can be used to include information about reading or interest levels. Awards note (MARC field 586) contains information about awards such as the Newberry or Caldecott. Provide a series added entry for the work if it provides a useful access point (either MARC 440 or MARC 490 and 830) MARC field 658 can be used to designate curricular objectives using categories from state or local sources.
A Bit About Subject Headings10 Subject headings can be obtained from the LC/SACO Subject Authority File (LC/SAF). Use of AC subject headings is encouraged. Omit subdivisions or headings specifying ―juvenile‖ or ―children’s‖. Assign subject headings to fiction using subdivision –Fiction. Assign both specific and general headings (eg, Sea Turtles & Turtles) Assign heading’s designating form (Jokes, Stories in Rhyme) Use both popular and scientific terms (eg, Canis & Dog)
LC Classification11 For fiction, assign numbers from the PZ schedule For nonfiction, assign numbers from the appropriate nonfiction schedule.
Dewey Classification12 For fiction for PreK through 2nd grade, assign the designation ―E‖. For fiction for 3rd grade and up, assign the designation, ―Fic.‖ For biography, use one of the following: ―B‖ for any individual biography. ―92‖ for individual biography & ―920‖ for collective biography. Class number for subject of person’s most important contribution. For nonfiction, assign number from current abridged Dewey Decimal Classification.