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IALLT April 2017 Presentation - Networked Language Learning
A presentation (webinar style) presented for IALLT members in April 2017. Discussion about tools and frameworks applicable to Language Learning in Networks. The conversion from Google Docs seems to have lost some images.
I was in college, and after a summer of bring abroad I was looking for ways to connect: 1 - connect to Greeks 2 - connect to Greece 3 - continue learning French (that I started in High School)
Examples of me continuing my french learning journey
Here kick to example of G and serbian G had a different departure point for learning. Whereas my prior departure point was my coursework her’s was another common language between interlocutors
Study of networks goes back a long way. One of the earliest examples is the Seven Bridges of Königsberg by Leonhard Euler in 1736 “The city of Königsberg in Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia) was set on both sides of the Pregel River, and included two large islands which were connected to each other, or to the two mainland portions of the city, by seven bridges. The problem was to devise a walk through the city that would cross each of those bridges once and only once.” - from Wikipedia article
“More recently other network science efforts have focused on mathematically describing different network topologies. Duncan Watts reconciled empirical data on networks with mathematical representation, describing the small-world network. Albert-László Barabási and Reka Albert developed the scale-free network which is a loosely defined network topology that contains hub vertices with many connections, that grow in a way to maintain a constant ratio in the number of the connections versus all other nodes. Although many networks, such as the internet, appear to maintain this aspect, other networks have long tailed distributions of nodes that only approximate scale free ratios.” - from Wikipedia on Networks
“Constitutions of networks exist when people interact with each other by communicating, sharing resources, working, learning or playing together, supported through face-to-face interaction as well as through the use of ICT (Haythornthwaite & De Laat, 2010). Each interaction defines a connection between people, known as a social network tie. These ties vary in strength from weak to strong according to the range and types of activities that people engage in. In other words, networked relationships—ties—connect the dots between otherwise isolated people.”
Schreurs, B. (2014). Analysing learning ties to stimulate continuous professional development in the workplace. In V. Hodgson et al. (eds.), The Design, Experience and Practice of Networked Learning, Research in Networked Learning, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-01940-6_11
Haythornthwaite & De Laat quote from: Haythornthwaite, C., & de Laat, M. (2010). Social networks and learning networks: Using social network perspectives to understand social learning. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, V. Hodgson, C. Jones, M. de Laat, & T. Ryberg (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th international conference on networked learning (pp. 183–190). Retrieved from http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/PDFs/Haythornwaite.pdf
Example of a network (anonymized)
Goodyear, P., Banks, S., Hodgson, V., & McConnell, D. (2004). Research on networked learning: An overview. In P. Goodyear, S. Banks, V. Hodgson, & D. McConnell (Eds.), Advances in research on networked learning (pp. 1–11). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
This is a surprisingly enduring definition. It first came out in 1999 (kind of convergence year!) This definition is based on a JISC project whose working title was “ Networked Learning in Higher Education ” - from McConnell, D., Hodgson, V., and Dirkinck-Holmfeld, L. (2012). Networked Learning: A Brief History and New Trends. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld et al. (eds.), Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice 3 of Networked Learning, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0496-5_1
---------------- Many terms are emerging to describe the use of electronic communication and the Internet in education and training. My preference is for ‘networked learning’ since it places emphasis on networking people and resources; and on collaboration as the major form of social relationships within a learning context. The emphasis is empathically on learning and not on technology (McConnell 1999 ) . Above quote from: McConnell, D., Hodgson, V., and Dirkinck-Holmfeld, L. (2012). Networked Learning: A Brief History and New Trends. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld et al. (eds.), Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice 3 of Networked Learning, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0496-5_1. Springer
Summary of McConnell’s work from the following source McConnell, D., Hodgson, V., and Dirkinck-Holmfeld, L. (2012). Networked Learning: A Brief History and New Trends. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld et al. (eds.), Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice 3 of Networked Learning, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0496-5_1. Springer
Positive interdependence is the knowledge that you are linked closely with others in the learning task and that success …. depends on each person working together to complete the tasks … (McConnell 1994 , p. 94). ~ from above chapter, page 9
Problem Oriented Project Pedagogy - A PBL variant from Aalborg University (Denmark)
Ongoing evaluation: The norms and roles associated with networked learning groups help eliminate some of the competitive nature of traditional educational environments. Learners need to work at mutual acceptance, and develop skill in working cooperatively.
Using this framework, the first virtual Masters in Networked Collaborative Learning was launched in 1996 at Sheffield University (McConnell 1998 ) .
‘The epistemology of networked learning is in essence that knowledge emerges or is constructed in relational dialogue or collaborative interaction’ (Hodgson et al., 2012, p. 293).
Hodgson, V., McConnell, D., & Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (2012). The theory, practice and pedagogy of networked learning. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, V. Hodgson, & D. McConnell (Eds.), Exploring the theory, pedagogy and practice of networked learning (pp. 291–305). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
DOHN EXPANSION Dohn, N. B. (2014) Implications for Networked Learning of the ‘Practice’ Side of Social Practice Theories: A Tacit-Knowledge Perspective. In V. Hodgson et al. (eds.), The Design, Experience and Practice of Networked Learning, Research in Networked Learning, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-01940-6_2. Springer
Design for learning Goodyear et al.  argue that we can design the tasks, the organisation and the space, in which learning may take place, however we can’t be sure how the tasks are carried out, organisation becomes community or spaces become places. (Dirckinck-Holmfeld et al., 2009, p. 162) Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., & Jones, C. (2009). Issues and concepts in networked learning. Analysis and the future of networked learning. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, C. Jones, & B. Lindstro¨m (Eds.), Analysing networked learning practices in higher education and continuing professional development (pp. 259–285). Rotterdam, Denmark: Sense.
While this was written for professionals doing PD, it could carry through to language learners: professionals and their managers ideally need to become the architects of their own professional learning spaces. For example, to design for learning the architect can make sure that (1) the desired artefacts are in place, like curricula, expert advice, procedures, tasks ICT Tools, etc. and (2) the right people are at the right place, in the right kind of relation to enable learning to happen (Wenger, 1998). Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. As cited in Scheuers, B. (2014) . Analysing Learning Ties to Stimulate Continuous Professional Development in the Workplace. In V. Hodgson et al. (eds.), The Design, Experience and Practice of Networked Learning, Research in Networked Learning, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-01940-6_11. Springer.
Some notable connections to other theorist’s work Vygotsy, Leontiev, Engestrom, Lave & Wenger, Law, Latour, Knowles, Brookfield, Garrison
According to Dohn (2014), Central concepts which have been taken over from such theories are ‘activity system’, ‘zone of proximal development’, ‘mediation’, ‘rules’, ‘community of practice’, ‘negotiation of meaning’, ‘identity’, ‘repertoire’, ‘participation’, and ‘reification’.
Everyone wants to talk about the Tools first, let me go backwards and discuss action and approaches first - in other words ways of being
Excerpt from Dohn, 2014 Networked learning activities tend for given participants to fall into one of three categories: Activities which in practice are ‘stand-alone’ activities and for which participants feel no great intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). The instrumental purpose and justification of the activities in terms of educational goals may be quite clear, and they may be thematically quite well integrated with activities taking place in physical contexts (e.g. further course activities or practice experiences from informal everyday learning contexts).
2) Activities which succeed in being (part of) a ‘primary context’ for the participants and which they therefore view as natural and rewarding for expressing and developing their knowledge. References to literature which present examples of such activities are given above. I shall term this kind of activity ‘primary context activities’. As indicated, many networked learning activities do not succeed in becoming primary context activities even though they are designed with that aim.
3) Activities which do not aim at attaining educational ends in themselves, but which serve as ‘mediators’ or ‘brokers’ between primary contexts. They gain what significance they have by being catalysts for participants to remediate and resituate content across settings. The mediation may, for example, be between educational settings and other life contexts, between different study contexts within a course, between courses within an educational programme,
Blin and Munro (2008) who commented that despite the investment in virtual learning environments (VLEs) in universities: . . . there is little evidence of significant impact on teaching practices and current implementations are accused of being focused on improving administration and replicating behaviourist, content-driven models (p. 475).
Blin, F., & Munro, M. (2008). Why hasn’t technology disrupted academics’ teaching practices? Understanding resistance to change through the lens of activity theory. Computers & Education, 50, 475–490
Downes - 4 MOOC/Social Learning actions http://change.mooc.ca/how.htm 1. Feed Forward your own creations 2. Repurpose other people’s work 3. Remix other people’s work 4. Aggregate/promote other people’s work
Patchwork Ryberg, T. (2009). Understanding productive learning through the metaphorical lens of patchworking. In L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, C. Jones and B. Lindstrom (eds.), Analysing Networked Learning Practices in Higher Education and Continuing Professional Development, 201 221.
Learners engaged in networked performances where they traverse a lot of different networks Through these traversals they gather materials and an knowledge. They can break down this gathered material, and repurpose and remix smaller chunks into their learning quilt Through this patchworking we can actively see students engage in and process knowledge CAVEAT: need to keep copy/paste at bay - reflective writing as a potential way engage learners in deep thinking about their unfolding patchwork
Embrace Not Yet-ness (Amy Collier) - by doing this you are creating a space for things to evolve http://teachinginhighered.com/podcast/not-yet-ness/
Ross, J. & Collier, A. (2016). Complexity, Mess, and Not yet-ness. In G. Veletsianos (Ed) Emergence and Innovation in Digital Learning (2nd Ed.). Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from: http://www.aupress.ca/books/120258/ebook/02_Veletsianos_2016-Emergence_and_Innovation_in_Digital_Learning.pdf
She describes ‘the play, the fun, the opportunity in complexity and not-yetness’, and argues that ‘the ill-defined, the un-prescribed, the messy can lead to the unexpected, the joyful’. http://jenrossity.net/blog/?p=12935
Blogs (reflection and not yet-ness) Wikis or Weebly as patchwork sites or portfolios
HelloLingo (LiveMocha successor)
Blogs (reflection and not yet-ness) Wikis or Weebly as patchwork sites or portfolios
and maybe some frameworks, too!
A little background on
the “Networked” Part
of Networked Learning
A little on Networks
First Appearance in...
Seven Bridges of Königsberg
More recent work by...
● Watts (small-world networks)
● Barabasi (scale-free networks)
For our purposes...
Constitutions of networks exist when people interact with
each other by communicating, sharing resources,
working, learning or playing together, supported through
face-to-face interaction as well as through the use of ICT
(Haythornthwaite & De Laat, 2010).
Web Scavenged Image
Visual of a Network (CLMOOC)
From upcoming paper, image by Aras Bozkurt
Something from the
other side of the pond...
We define ‘networked learning’ as learning in
which ICT is used to promote connections:
between one learner and other learners,
between learners and tutors; between a
learning community and its learning
Goodyear, P., Banks, S., Hodgson, V., & McConnell, D. (2004).
Networked Learning defined (as a visual)
Networked Learning (areas of pedagogy, summary)
Openness in the Educational Process
● Grand idea: learning seen to occur in social contexts, and as a consequence learners begin to
address learning from a qualitatively different perspective, a meta-level.
● In McConnell’s research majority of students’ willingness to work collaboratively was
dependent on the openness in the group
● Connection with SDL
● Grand idea: SD learners take primary responsibility for IDing their learning needs; SD learners
help others determine their needs
A real purpose in the cooperative process
● Connection with PBL; POPP; Action Research
● Grand idea: Help learners see connections, don’t let things be abstract and unconnected to real
● Promotion of positive interdependence (McConnell)
Networked Learning (areas of pedagogy, part II)
A supportive learning environment
● Connection with SCT and ZPD
● Grand idea: an environment where learners encourage and facilitate each other’s learning
Collaborative Assessment of Learning
● Connection with scaffolded learning
● Grand idea: Collaborative assessment process (self-; peer-; tutor- assessments). Learning from
the process of assessment and getting better prepared for the next assessment.
Assessment and Evaluation of the ongoing learning process
● Connection with Instructional Design
● Grand idea: Learners need to feel that their contributions to course design change matter.
Networked Learning (with a little more depth and expansion)
Networked learning is learning in which ICT is used to promote connections: between one
learner and other learners; between learners and tutors; between a learning community and its
learning resources; between the diverse contexts in which the learners participate.
DESIGN FOR LEARNING
It is argued that you can’t design the learning itself. You can set the dominoes in place, but the
actual outcome is impacted by the learners and the contexts.
DESIGN WITH PRIMARY CONTEXT IN MIND
Activities which are natural for the learners, and rewarding for them (one of the rationales for
‘going to the learner’ when it comes to social media in the classroom). Primary contexts hence
become ancorage points for the learners.
Networked learning as part of a constellation
Where to from here?
Tools, approaches, actions
Some ways to act and think in a networked environment
Downe’s Social Learning Participation actions
● Aggregate, Remix, Repurpose, and Feed Forward
● This is quite individual focused, but still useful
● Networked Learning means that learners engage potentially in many different types of networks.
● Remixing, Repurposing, and Patching together information, knowledge and resources from their
various networks (portfolios come to mind here).
● Collier describes ‘the play, the fun, the opportunity in complexity and not-yetness’, and argues that
‘the ill-defined, the un-prescribed, the messy can lead to the unexpected, the joyful’. (Ross, 2015)
In addition to Creation
Tools, Part I
Contemporary Counterparts to favorite classics!
“Classics” of the last decade
Portfolio Sites (weebly)
Blogs & Reflective
New ways to connect
HelloLingo (LiveMocha reborn)
New ways to connect
Web Scavenged Images
Top: World of Warcraft
Bottom: Star Trek Online
To OER, or not to OER? (MOOCs, Podcasts, YouTube)
Top: France université numérique