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Water on Mars. Past and present
Lecture 7

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Outline

•

•

Tuesday, November 12 2013

History of Mars exploration and relationship with water
• Why Mars and why water...
Why Mars and why water?

Tuesday, November 12 2013

3

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Why Mars and why water?

What are the current outstanding questions to
drive future exploration?
•

•
•

When and where di...
Insight from space probes

Percival Lowell
(≈1900)

Tuesday, November 12 2013

5

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Insight from space probes

Tuesday, November 12 2013

6

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Insight from space probes
Viking
(1975)

Mariner
(1965-1971)

Tuesday, November 12 2013

7

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Insight from space probes

Viking
(1975)

Tuesday, November 12 2013

8

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Insight from space probes

Mars Express
2003

Mars Global Surveyor
1996

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
2005

Mars Odyssey
20...
Insight from space probes

MGS
TES - 1996

MO
GRS - 2001

Gamma spectroscopy

MO
THEMIS - 2001
MRO
SHARAD - 2005
MEx
MARSI...
Insight from space probes

Gamma spectroscopy

Thermal infrared

Radar

Visible optical imagery
Visible – Near Infrared sp...
Insight from space probes
MGS
MOC - 1996
MEx
HRSC - 2003
MRO
CTX & HiRISE - 2005

MGS
MOLA - 1996

Tuesday, November 12 20...
Water on Mars through time

Evidence of water from:
• Morphology
• Mineralogy

Tuesday, November 12 2013

13

Dr Harold Cl...
Water on Mars through time

Evidence of water from:
• Morphology
• Mineralogy

Tuesday, November 12 2013

14

Dr Harold Cl...
Water on Mars through time

THEMIS IR Mosaic in the Warrego Valles area

Valley networks
HIRISE image Small Valley Network...
Water on Mars through time

Lake deltas and fans

High rate of erosion for the
craters in the southern
hemisphere

Tuesday...
Water on Mars through time

Tuesday, November 12 2013

17

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

Tuesday, November 12 2013

18

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

Tuesday, November 12 2013

19

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

Tuesday, November 12 2013

20

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

Minerals that need water
to be produced

Local detections: Clays in Nili Fossae region

Large ...
Water on Mars through time

Tuesday, November 12 2013

22

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

•
•

Tuesday, November 12 2013

23

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

MOLA in the Kasei Valles area

Outflow channels

Tuesday, November 12 2013

24

Dr Harold Clen...
Water on Mars through time

Resurfacing of North planes
and rampart craters

Tuesday, November 12 2013

25

Dr Harold Clen...
Water on Mars through time

Terra Meridiani (Opportunity)

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in V...
Water on Mars through time

Sulfates in ILD

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Sulfate over clays in Colombus crater

27

Dr Haro...
Water on Mars through time

•
•

Tuesday, November 12 2013

28

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

Tuesday, November 12 2013

29

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

Layered deposits on the North polar cap

Tuesday, November 12 2013

30

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL...
Water on Mars through time

Gullies
Tuesday, November 12 2013

31

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Water on Mars through time

gullies
viscous flow
Low-latitude
gullies

Brine with ferric
sulfate

Tuesday, November 12 201...
Outline

•

•

Tuesday, November 12 2013

History of Mars exploration and relationship with water
• Why Mars and why water...
Today’s atmospheric conditions

Atmospheric pressure
560 Pa

Temperatures
-133°C / 27°C

Atmosphere
95.3% CO2

No liquid w...
Polar ice caps

Tuesday, November 12 2013

35

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Polar ice caps

Tuesday, November 12 2013

36

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Polar ice caps

South Polar Ice Cap: 1.6 x 106 km3, which is equivalent to a global
water layer of approximately 11 meters...
Near subsurface ice

Tuesday, November 12 2013

38

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Near subsurface ice

Tuesday, November 12 2013

39

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Near subsurface ice

Tuesday, November 12 2013

40

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Subsurface ice

Found in few place under the surface (depths 1 to 3 km)
Represent 1% of the total water volume contained i...
Summary

•

•

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Evidence for liquid water during Mars history
• Noachian warm and wet
• Valley n...
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Lecture EPFL Water on Mars

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Lecture 7 part 1 of the "Introduction to Planetary Science" course at EPFL/Swiss Space Center
Water on Mars (history of water at the surface and relationship with space exploration, actual water reservoirs)
http://moodle.epfl.ch/course/view.php?id=6281&lang=fr

Publié dans : Formation, Technologie
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Lecture EPFL Water on Mars

  1. 1. Water on Mars. Past and present Lecture 7 Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  2. 2. Outline • • Tuesday, November 12 2013 History of Mars exploration and relationship with water • Why Mars and why water? • Insight from space probes • Water on Mars through time Actual water reservoirs • Today’s atmospheric conditions • Polar ice caps • Near subsurface ice • Subsurface ice 2 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  3. 3. Why Mars and why water? Tuesday, November 12 2013 3 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  4. 4. Why Mars and why water? What are the current outstanding questions to drive future exploration? • • • When and where did liquid water persist with a sufficiently high activity to support life? Did life or pre-biotic chemistry develop? What drove a fundamental change, from the Noachian to Hesperian periods, in the surface environment recorded in aqueous deposits? How did Mars' internal evolution influence the surface environment? ©NASA Tuesday, November 12 2013 4 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  5. 5. Insight from space probes Percival Lowell (≈1900) Tuesday, November 12 2013 5 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  6. 6. Insight from space probes Tuesday, November 12 2013 6 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  7. 7. Insight from space probes Viking (1975) Mariner (1965-1971) Tuesday, November 12 2013 7 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  8. 8. Insight from space probes Viking (1975) Tuesday, November 12 2013 8 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  9. 9. Insight from space probes Mars Express 2003 Mars Global Surveyor 1996 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 2005 Mars Odyssey 2001 Global mapping with many observation techniques Tuesday, November 12 2013 9 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  10. 10. Insight from space probes MGS TES - 1996 MO GRS - 2001 Gamma spectroscopy MO THEMIS - 2001 MRO SHARAD - 2005 MEx MARSIS - 2003 Radar MGS MOC - 1996 Thermal infrared MEx HRSC - 2003 MEx OMEGA - 2003 MRO CTX & HiRISE - 2005 MRO CRISM - 2005 Visible optical imagery Visible – Near Infrared spectroscopy Tuesday, November 12 2013 10 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  11. 11. Insight from space probes Gamma spectroscopy Thermal infrared Radar Visible optical imagery Visible – Near Infrared spectroscopy Tuesday, November 12 2013 11 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  12. 12. Insight from space probes MGS MOC - 1996 MEx HRSC - 2003 MRO CTX & HiRISE - 2005 MGS MOLA - 1996 Tuesday, November 12 2013 12 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  13. 13. Water on Mars through time Evidence of water from: • Morphology • Mineralogy Tuesday, November 12 2013 13 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  14. 14. Water on Mars through time Evidence of water from: • Morphology • Mineralogy Tuesday, November 12 2013 14 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  15. 15. Water on Mars through time THEMIS IR Mosaic in the Warrego Valles area Valley networks HIRISE image Small Valley Networks in the Ancient Southern Highlands (ESP_012519_1320) Tuesday, November 12 2013 15 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  16. 16. Water on Mars through time Lake deltas and fans High rate of erosion for the craters in the southern hemisphere Tuesday, November 12 2013 16 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  17. 17. Water on Mars through time Tuesday, November 12 2013 17 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  18. 18. Water on Mars through time Tuesday, November 12 2013 18 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  19. 19. Water on Mars through time Tuesday, November 12 2013 19 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  20. 20. Water on Mars through time Tuesday, November 12 2013 20 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  21. 21. Water on Mars through time Minerals that need water to be produced Local detections: Clays in Nili Fossae region Large scale detections: Clays in Mawrth Vallis Tuesday, November 12 2013 21 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  22. 22. Water on Mars through time Tuesday, November 12 2013 22 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  23. 23. Water on Mars through time • • Tuesday, November 12 2013 23 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  24. 24. Water on Mars through time MOLA in the Kasei Valles area Outflow channels Tuesday, November 12 2013 24 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  25. 25. Water on Mars through time Resurfacing of North planes and rampart craters Tuesday, November 12 2013 25 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  26. 26. Water on Mars through time Terra Meridiani (Opportunity) Tuesday, November 12 2013 Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in Valles Marineris (HRSC) 26 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  27. 27. Water on Mars through time Sulfates in ILD Tuesday, November 12 2013 Sulfate over clays in Colombus crater 27 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  28. 28. Water on Mars through time • • Tuesday, November 12 2013 28 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  29. 29. Water on Mars through time Tuesday, November 12 2013 29 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  30. 30. Water on Mars through time Layered deposits on the North polar cap Tuesday, November 12 2013 30 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  31. 31. Water on Mars through time Gullies Tuesday, November 12 2013 31 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  32. 32. Water on Mars through time gullies viscous flow Low-latitude gullies Brine with ferric sulfate Tuesday, November 12 2013 32 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  33. 33. Outline • • Tuesday, November 12 2013 History of Mars exploration and relationship with water • Why Mars and why water? • Insight from space probes • Water on Mars through time Actual water reservoirs • Today’s atmospheric conditions • Polar ice caps • Near subsurface ice • Subsurface ice 33 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  34. 34. Today’s atmospheric conditions Atmospheric pressure 560 Pa Temperatures -133°C / 27°C Atmosphere 95.3% CO2 No liquid water at surface conditions Tuesday, November 12 2013 34 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  35. 35. Polar ice caps Tuesday, November 12 2013 35 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  36. 36. Polar ice caps Tuesday, November 12 2013 36 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  37. 37. Polar ice caps South Polar Ice Cap: 1.6 x 106 km3, which is equivalent to a global water layer of approximately 11 meters thick Tuesday, November 12 2013 37 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  38. 38. Near subsurface ice Tuesday, November 12 2013 38 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  39. 39. Near subsurface ice Tuesday, November 12 2013 39 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  40. 40. Near subsurface ice Tuesday, November 12 2013 40 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  41. 41. Subsurface ice Found in few place under the surface (depths 1 to 3 km) Represent 1% of the total water volume contained in the polar caps, equivalent to a global water layer 20 cm thick. Tuesday, November 12 2013 41 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  42. 42. Summary • • Tuesday, November 12 2013 Evidence for liquid water during Mars history • Noachian warm and wet • Valley networks • Craters erosion • Deltas and fans • Hydrated minerals • Hesperian colder and dryer but water still present • Outflow channels • Rampart craters • Sulfates and layered deposits • Amazonian to present • Almost no water activity except at high latitudes and in polar caps Actual water reservoirs • Polar ice caps • Near subsurface ice • Subsurface ice 42 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

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