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How Organizations Use Mental Model Diagrams                                  Aligning                               Design...
Our Time Together3:15-3:20 This Is Not Evaluative Research3:20-3:25 Introduction to Mental Models3:25-3:55 How Organizatio...
This Is NotEvaluativeResearch
Evaluative        “(adj) determining the significance, worth, or quality”        “assessing or judging the value of”      ...
Generative        “gen·er·a·tive adj. 1. Having the ability to originate,        produce, or procreate. 2. Of or relating ...
Techniques                              Uses          Preference                            Survey                      Vi...
Generative: make a nest,                                      Evaluative: take the ideas   paper the walls with           ...
The customer                                                               objectives are to                              ...
EmpathyExperience of the feelings, thoughts, attitudes of another                                       cc by-nc-nd UX Wor...
New York Times 23-Aug-09 “Experiencing Life, Briefly, Inside a Nursing Home” by Katie Zezima   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF...
Empathy Generates, Not Evaluates                The point is to understand people deeply—                — so deeply you c...
Introduction      toMental Models
What are mental models?          “Models people have of themselves, others, their           environment, and the things th...
What are mental models?Models your team has of others                        cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   14
Site Owners Measuring Success - Google Analytics Team, Jeff Veen   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   15
Type I Diabetics Coping with Their Condition Daily – Adaptive Path Team   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   16
Patrons Deciding What to Order – McDonald’s Menu Team, Jeff Pollard   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   17
People Running an Information Center – Omar Sosa Tzec   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   18
Buyers Purchasing Merchandise – Macy’s, Mary Piontkowski   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   19
Mental SpacesLarge Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team   cc by-nc-nd UX Works...
TowersLarge Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF...
Boxes  (behaviors,    beliefs,   reactions)        SupportLarge Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Proce...
cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   23
cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   24
Model of Support Items                    cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   25
Large Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Ma...
Pin the Tail on the Donkey Game – Motleye CC BY Flickr   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   27
Data exploration by Stamen Design – available at http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshop...
Data exploration by Stamen Design – available at http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshop...
cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   30
My Custom Pin the Tail on the Donkey – jsigharas CC-BY Flickr jsigharas/   cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   31
How OrganizationsUse Mental Model    Diagrams
Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements ...
Support People’s Situations Better       Match Mental Information Structures       Strategize, Prioritize       Skip Writi...
People don’t just beat a path toour door anymore. The website   wasn’t doing a good job of  replacing sales reps, so we ne...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   36
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   37
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   38
We needed proof for the VC’s that wewere doing our due diligence about our potential audience in this competitive  space. ...
Figure Out How to Handle an Attraction                                                                 Let Someone Know   ...
Observe How                                                                   Someone Interacts                           ...
Go Out With a Person for the First TimeFemale Dominated Male Dominated  Both Genders                                  Reac...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   43
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   44
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   45
Management told us to go make a new                        application that will compete with others who                  ...
Assign Jobs   Find Out Driver Location                   Reroute Drivers                                         cc by-nc-...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   48
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   49
As leader of the centralized design  group, I needed to convince other   departments to trust us. I neededsome early, subs...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   51
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   52
Some new service design ideas just        came from the words people used like,        “Check family account.” We don’t ha...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   54
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   55
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   56
I walked out of the library the other day after it                                                was closed and saw a gen...
Left: Dan Arganbright, Quixtar; Right: Discussion – *keagy.com of XPLANE CC-BY Flickr *keagy.com/   cc by-nc-nd Indi Young...
We still work with the Mental                     Model we co-created in 2005. I                     am pulling it out aga...
Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements ...
I was certain that a better IA would                               help us increase our qualified leads,                  ...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   62
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   63
Prospective students, hip to internet use,    were turned off by the old organization. It was      difficult to find what ...
Credit to Archive.org   cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   65
Design by Laura Hansen, India Christman and team, sponsored by Lee Thompson   cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   66
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   67
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   68
Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements ...
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   70
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   71
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   72
cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11   73
Less Serious                          Passionate About                          About Study                              t...
Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements ...
Big Document – Ernie of Ann Arbor, Michigan CC-BY Flickr EAHIV/   cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   76
cc by-nc-nd Indi Young   77
DVD Release Dates – Redesign Proposal Towers of Note in Mental Model     Get the DVD      Buy Special        DVDs         ...
We gave the advertising agency                                                                            the mental model...
Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements ...
We expect that the mental model will                                  help all these different teams rally                ...
The first time we got these mental models in front of merchandising, I saw them have thatah-ha moment! This was the first ...
Your Questions
A model of people’s behavior, philosophies, &   emotions in a certain scoped situationObjects slotted, where appropriate, ...
Mental Models BookCode: INDI (25% discount)www.rosenfeldmedia.com  Resources Section:  - slides & videos  - articles  - ho...
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How Organizations Use Mental Model Diagrams

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How Organizations Use Mental Model Diagrams

  1. How Organizations Use Mental Model Diagrams Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior Indi Young
  2. Our Time Together3:15-3:20 This Is Not Evaluative Research3:20-3:25 Introduction to Mental Models3:25-3:55 How Organizations Use Mental Models3:55-4:00 Your Questions cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24- 2 Mar-11
  3. This Is NotEvaluativeResearch
  4. Evaluative “(adj) determining the significance, worth, or quality” “assessing or judging the value of” “e·valu·a·tive adj. Philosophy expressing an attitude or value judgment” “examining and judging carefully”Definitions from wordnetweb.princeton.edu, textanalysis.info, umich.edu cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 4
  5. Generative “gen·er·a·tive adj. 1. Having the ability to originate, produce, or procreate. 2. Of or relating to the production of offspring.” “[jen-er-uh-tiv, -uh-rey-tiv] –adjective. capable of producing or creating.”Definitions from thefreedictionary.com, dictionary.reference.com cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 5
  6. Techniques Uses Preference Survey Visual Design Opinions, likes, desires Focus Group Branding Mood Board Market Analysis Customer Feedback Advertising Campaign Preference Interview Card Sort Evaluative Usability Test Test Interaction FunctionalityWhat is understood or accomplished Log Analysis Test Screen Layoutwith an artifact, process, or service Search Analytics Test Nomenclature Customer Feedback Test IA Card Sort Generative Non-Directed Interview Interaction DesignMental environment in which things Contextual Inquiry Information Architecture get evaluated & decided Mental Model Alignment & Gap Analysis Ethnography Contextual Information Field Study Diary cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 6
  7. Generative: make a nest, Evaluative: take the ideas paper the walls with outside the nest and see empathy, be creative in how well they actually that place, generate support people supportive ideas (debate about user-centered design: whether or not you invite customers to co-create with you in the nest)NTNU Engineering Sci & Tech BY-NC-SA; Bolt|Peters “User 06” BY cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 7
  8. The customer objectives are to increase satisfaction and loyalty. This is hard. We have difficulty taking off our employee hat.Conference Table Discussion – Pulpolux !!! BY-NC-NA Flickr cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 8
  9. EmpathyExperience of the feelings, thoughts, attitudes of another cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 9
  10. New York Times 23-Aug-09 “Experiencing Life, Briefly, Inside a Nursing Home” by Katie Zezima cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 10
  11. Empathy Generates, Not Evaluates The point is to understand people deeply— — so deeply you could live their life, walk in their shoes, and make decisions exactly the way they would.Navajo Moccasin – Gary Graves CC-BY-NC-ND Flickr ggraves/2745631003 cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 11
  12. Introduction toMental Models
  13. What are mental models? “Models people have of themselves, others, their environment, and the things they interact with”Design of Everyday Things – Don Norman cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 13
  14. What are mental models?Models your team has of others cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 14
  15. Site Owners Measuring Success - Google Analytics Team, Jeff Veen cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 15
  16. Type I Diabetics Coping with Their Condition Daily – Adaptive Path Team cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 16
  17. Patrons Deciding What to Order – McDonald’s Menu Team, Jeff Pollard cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 17
  18. People Running an Information Center – Omar Sosa Tzec cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 18
  19. Buyers Purchasing Merchandise – Macy’s, Mary Piontkowski cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 19
  20. Mental SpacesLarge Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 20
  21. TowersLarge Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 21
  22. Boxes (behaviors, beliefs, reactions) SupportLarge Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 22
  23. cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 23
  24. cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 24
  25. Model of Support Items cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 25
  26. Large Business Owners Deciding How to Address HR/Financial Processes – PeopleSoft Team cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 26
  27. Pin the Tail on the Donkey Game – Motleye CC BY Flickr cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 27
  28. Data exploration by Stamen Design – available at http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/ cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 28
  29. Data exploration by Stamen Design – available at http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/ cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 29
  30. cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 30
  31. My Custom Pin the Tail on the Donkey – jsigharas CC-BY Flickr jsigharas/ cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 31
  32. How OrganizationsUse Mental Model Diagrams
  33. Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements DocsHelp Teams Work Together
  34. Support People’s Situations Better Match Mental Information Structures Strategize, Prioritize Skip Writing Huge Requirements Docs Help Teams Work TogetherThe Stanford Radar Dish Antenna – Raul Diaz CC-BY-NC Flickr radzfoto/3152110235
  35. People don’t just beat a path toour door anymore. The website wasn’t doing a good job of replacing sales reps, so we needed the mental model as evidence to change it and guide that change. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 35
  36. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 36
  37. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 37
  38. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 38
  39. We needed proof for the VC’s that wewere doing our due diligence about our potential audience in this competitive space. What we got was that, and more. We learned why online dating hasn’t worked well. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 39
  40. Figure Out How to Handle an Attraction Let Someone Know Im InterestedFemale Dominated Male Dominated Both Genders Flirt Around with Someone Consider Whether I Consider Whether to Exchange Non- Should Act On My Respond to an Verbal Attraction to Someone Approach Communication Struggle With Consider My Attraction to Whether to Talk More and Someone Respond to an More Approach Be Unsure If I Appear Be Subtle With Want to Pursue Disinterested My Interest So See if Someone is Someone I Until I Am Sure Hell Pursue Interested in Me Work With of My Feelings Me Think Its Ok to Watch Her Read Next Respond Body Language Date Someone Email Before Politely to At Work If You For Sign of Responding Email Interest Work Indirectly Wonder if Guy Let Someone Get a Converse Know Im Response from in Other State Anyway to Find will Move Interested by an Ice Breaker Out More Sending Email Online Closer cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 40
  41. Observe How Someone Interacts with Others Get a Better Sense of a Person See How Person ReactsFemale Dominated in Social Environments Male Dominated Both Genders Watch How Ask Friends to Tell Me Person About a Person Interacts with Other Singles Watch Her Ask Friends Actions before About Introducing Someone Myself See If Person Ask Co- Responds Well Workers About Teasing from Someone Family/Friends Ask Friend to Play Along with Find Out About Assigned Someone Partner in Skit Weigh Friends See How Opinion About Someone Someone Responds to Me Find Out About Observe the Someone That Behavior of the Im Being Set Persons Up With Friends cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 41
  42. Go Out With a Person for the First TimeFemale Dominated Male Dominated Both Genders React to My First Sight of Person Feel Shocked by Different Appearance Lose Spark I Felt Because of Their Looks In Person Like a Guys Looks from Afar cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 42
  43. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 43
  44. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 44
  45. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 45
  46. Management told us to go make a new application that will compete with others who are already in the market. They thought we could just do a better job. The mental model told us that people are pretty well-served in that area already. But it also showed us a whole new area of the business that was completely under-served!So now we’re telling management that a different service will be a strongerbet. We just have to convince them to go for it. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 46
  47. Assign Jobs Find Out Driver Location Reroute Drivers cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 47
  48. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 48
  49. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 49
  50. As leader of the centralized design group, I needed to convince other departments to trust us. I neededsome early, substantiated design wins. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 50
  51. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 51
  52. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 52
  53. Some new service design ideas just came from the words people used like, “Check family account.” We don’t have something called a “family account,” but it is obvious that people think about things in terms of the whole family and not each individual cardholder.Screenshots Kendra Davey, Pima County Library, prezi.com/fcyebws1kejb/mental-model/Photo kendra k www.flickr.com/photos/kendrak/473205575/ cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 53
  54. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 54
  55. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 55
  56. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 56
  57. I walked out of the library the other day after it was closed and saw a gentleman sitting on the ground using his laptop and my first thought was, “access wi-fi outside the library.” Then I thought, maybe we need an area for people to sit outside the library and use their laptops. Before this, I doubt I would have really thought about that customer. some just came from the words people used like, Check family account. We don’t have something called a “family account” but it is obvious that people think about things in terms of the whole family and not each individual cardholder. Even this small bit of knowledge gives us a lot of opportunity to design new servicesWi-Fi BY-NC-ND Gerard Girbes www.flickr.com/photos/strike/1563071397/ cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 57
  58. Left: Dan Arganbright, Quixtar; Right: Discussion – *keagy.com of XPLANE CC-BY Flickr *keagy.com/ cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 58
  59. We still work with the Mental Model we co-created in 2005. I am pulling it out again this week for a new piece of work. It really has stood the test of time for us.Connie Frenette, Bell / Aliant Canada cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 59
  60. Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements DocsHelp Teams Work Together
  61. I was certain that a better IA would help us increase our qualified leads, among other things. The mental model was a sure way to come up with the top-down IA.Our qualified leads increasedsignificantly in the first quarterafter launch, historically a low quarter for our business. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 61
  62. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 62
  63. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 63
  64. Prospective students, hip to internet use, were turned off by the old organization. It was difficult to find what they wanted to know.Cal State East BayProspective Student Mental Model cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 64
  65. Credit to Archive.org cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 65
  66. Design by Laura Hansen, India Christman and team, sponsored by Lee Thompson cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 66
  67. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 67
  68. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 68
  69. Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements DocsHelp Teams Work Together
  70. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 70
  71. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 71
  72. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 72
  73. cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 73
  74. Less Serious Passionate About About Study the Topic Carefully Consider Look Forward to the Academic College Experience Decisions Lots of Other Means to an End Life Experience Worried About How Exploring Paths to Get In & Stay InStudent photos courtesy of Lower Columbia College via Flickr cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 74
  75. Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements DocsHelp Teams Work Together
  76. Big Document – Ernie of Ann Arbor, Michigan CC-BY Flickr EAHIV/ cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 76
  77. cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 77
  78. DVD Release Dates – Redesign Proposal Towers of Note in Mental Model Get the DVD Buy Special DVDs Track Box Office Track Production Competition Studio News Quotes from Moviegoers Track Box Track Get DVDs as Office Production Gifts Competition Studio News “I own the extended editions.” “I own a lot of musicals … I have bought Meet Me in DVD Release Top Box Office Links to St. Louis.” Entertainment Dates Performers Websites Links to Gross “I get them as gifts a lot. DVDs … ” Income Tracking on Films “I get DVDs as gifts for other people.” Links to Box Office Websites“ … tracking the competition between the different movies.” “I keep an eye on release dates.”“ … scheduling strategy … Watching what strategy they “ … upcoming movie tracker that watches as projectsemploy and watching to see how that plays out in the box are developed… I know a lot about movies that aren’toffice is an independent source of entertainment.” going to be out for another two years.”“ … tells you a lot about what the studio thinks about the “I subscribe to different mailing lists where they talkmovie… That interests me too–the whole dynamic of how about what’s coming out.”studios release and produce movies. There is a whole levelof personal politicking you can find out about through the “ … always read coverage off movie-related stuff inmagic of the internet.” the media… there are a couple of websites that I read regularly that are movie related.”ObservationsThe current application, “DVD Release Dates,” allows people to enter a movie title and it will return the by-nc-nd Indi Young cc upcoming 78
  79. We gave the advertising agency the mental model as part of the brief. It made the brief so strong and rich that their first work back to us was closer to the mark.Meeting photo courtesy of Jens Vermeersch, storyboard photo courtesy of Just Johnny; http://www.flickr.com cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 80
  80. Support People’s Situations BetterMatch Mental Information StructuresStrategize, PrioritizeSkip Writing Huge Requirements DocsHelp Teams Work Together
  81. We expect that the mental model will help all these different teams rally together behind one vision, so we can avoid the confusion and battles that come with mergers like this.Photos courtesy of Steven G. Dean, Devika Singh cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 82
  82. The first time we got these mental models in front of merchandising, I saw them have thatah-ha moment! This was the first time they had seen it all in one place, and they could see that, yeah, there were gaps. The store operations guys said the data agreed with what they had found—it was the same stuff, but presented differently. Senior management outside dot-com said, “Wow, this is really actionable now.” It’s interesting that regardless of the data and the business, the mental model is successful in opening eyes.” cc by-nc-nd Indi Young 83
  83. Your Questions
  84. A model of people’s behavior, philosophies, & emotions in a certain scoped situationObjects slotted, where appropriate, to support that behavior cc by-nc-nd UX Workshops SF 24-Mar-11 86
  85. Mental Models BookCode: INDI (25% discount)www.rosenfeldmedia.com Resources Section: - slides & videos - articles - how-to’s & templates @indiyoung indi@acm.org cc by-nc-nd Title Here City dd-mmm-yy 87

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