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Iec basic principles

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Information,education & communication basics

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Iec basic principles

  1. 1. Information Education and Communication (IEC): Basic Principles Dr Khem R Sharma Assistant Professor, SPH & CM
  2. 2. Contents • Health Education/Information/Communication • IEC / essentials • Communication Process • Types of Communication • Principles of health education • The basic principles of communication
  3. 3. A state of complete physical, mental & social wellbeing & not merely an absence of disease or infirmity that enables an individual to lead a socially & economically productive life. (WHO Definition of Health) • Health Education: concern establishing changes in personal and group attitudes and behavior that promote healthier living. - the foundation of a preventive health care system. - Correct information is the basic part of health education.
  4. 4. Health Information • Facts about situation, persons, and events in relation to health. • Uses of health information: 1) To measure the health status of the people and to quantify their health problems and Medical/health care needs.
  5. 5. 2) For local, national and international comparison of health status 3) For planning, administration and management of health services and programs 4) For assessing whether health services are accomplishing their objectives in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency Health Information
  6. 6. (5) For assessing the attitude and degree of satisfaction of the beneficiary with the health system (6) For research into particular problems of health and disease Health Information
  7. 7. “Health education is a process that informs, motivates and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and lifestyles, advocates environmental changes as needed to facilitate this goal and conducts, professional training and research to the same end” The dynamic definition of Health Education was given by Alma Ata Declaration 1978. “A process aimed at encouraging people to be healthy, to know how to stay healthy, to do what they can do individually and collectively to maintain health and seek help when needed”.
  8. 8. Objectives of Health Education o Informing people: The first directive of health education is to inform people or disseminate scientific knowledge about prevention of disease and promotion of health. o Motivating People: Simply informing people about health is not enough. They must be motivated to change their habits and ways of living, since many present day problems of community health require alteration of human behavior or changes in the health practices which are detrimental to health.
  9. 9. • Guiding into action: Health education can and should be conducted by a variety of health, education and communication personnel, in a variety of settings. • People need to be encouraged to use judiciously and wisely the health services available.
  10. 10. Communication Process Sole purpose of communication is to influence others Message Channel Receiver Feedback Sender
  11. 11. Communication Process 1. Sender (source) - communicator 2. Receiver: (audience)-Single person or group of people (Homogenous audience is better) 3. Message (content)- Meaningful, based on felt needs, clear and understandable, specific and adequate, interesting, culturally and socially appropriate. 4. Channels (medium): • Interpersonal communication • Mass Media • Traditional or folk media 5. Feedback (effect)- Reaction of the audience to the message
  12. 12. Health Communication Health Communication Individual approach Personal contact Home Visits Personal letters Group approach 1. Lectures 2. Demonstrations 3. Discussion Group discussion Workshops Conferences Seminars Role play Mass Approach TV/radio Newspaper/printed materials Direct mailing Posters Health museums and exhibitions Folk methods Internet
  13. 13. Basic Idea… • Information: Inform the target groups about the cause of disease its transmission and how to prevent the disease. (Collection of known facts) • Education: Educate the target groups about techniques of disease prevention and mode of transmission. (formal training by specialists) • Communication: A process that informs, motivates and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices by using techniques to spread the knowledge on the disease prevention and health promotion. (two way process of exchanging or shaping ideas, feelings, and information)
  14. 14. IEC • A broad term comprising a range of approaches, activities and outputs • The most visible component of IEC is frequently the materials, producer and user (such as posters hanging on clinic walls) • Materials are only one component. • Effective IEC makes use of a full range of approaches and activities
  15. 15. IEC… • Approaches: use of mass media to inform • Activities: include designing and providing training in communication skills , carrying out research on audiences (what information is needed, effective way) • Objective: 1. To raise the health awareness of the people 2. To enable them to identify health issues, develop positive attitude towards health care & increase access to new information and technology of health and health programs for the people
  16. 16. IEC… • Goal: To raise health awareness of issues, which influence peoples agendas, help them clarify their values and to acquire knowledge, skills by means of changing attitudes, beliefs, values, behaviour or norms within individual or groups of individuals. • The goals may be achieved at different levels 1. Cognitive level in terms of increase in knowledge 2. Affective: in terms of changing existing patterns of behaviour and attitudes. 3. Psychomotor: In terms of acquiring new skills.
  17. 17. The essentials of IEC • IEC combines strategies, approaches and methods that enable individuals, families, groups, organisations and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health • Embodied in IEC is the process of learning that empowers people to make decisions, modify behaviours and change social conditions.
  18. 18. …….The essentials of IEC • Activities are developed based upon needs assessments, sound educational principles, and periodic evaluation using a clear set of goals and objectives • The influence of underlying social, cultural, economic and environmental conditions on health are also taken into consideration in the IEC processes.
  19. 19. …….The essentials of IEC • Identifying and promoting specific behaviours that are desirable are usually the objectives of IEC efforts.... • Channels might include interpersonal communication (such as individual discussions, counselling sessions or group discussions and community meetings and events) OR mass media communication (such as radio, television and other forms of one-way communication, such as brochures, leaflets and posters, visual and audio visual presentations and some forms of electronic communication).
  20. 20. Types of Communication • One way communication - flow of communication in one way from the communicator to the audience. e.g. lecture methods in class rooms. • Two way communication - in which both the communicator and the audience take part. • Verbal communication - Direct verbal communication by word of mouth (spoken word) • Non-verbal communication - Communication without words Bodily movements, facial expressions, gestures, symbolic representation
  21. 21. Other communications • Formal communication : follows lines of authority • Informal communication : Gossips, chatting • Visual communication: Charts and graphs, pictograms, tables, maps, patterns. • Telecommunication and internet: Radio, TV, and internet.
  22. 22. Barriers in Communication 1) Physiological- Difficulties in hearing or expression. 2) Psychological- Language, Emotional disturbances, Neurosis and Comprehension difficulties. 3) Environmental- Noise, Invisibility and Congestion. 4) Cultural- Illiteracy, Level of Knowledge and Understandings, Religion, Social class differences, Language variations, Cultural differences between foreigners and nationals.
  23. 23. Principles of health education Health education brings together the art & science of medicine, and the principles and practice of general education. • Credibility : The degree to which message to be communicated is perceived as trustworthy by the receiver (based on facts- must be compatible with scientific knowledge & with the local culture,..) • Interest : People are unlikely to listen things which are not to their interest. ( relate to the interest of the people; to find out the needs the people feel about themselves).
  24. 24. ……..Principles of health education • Participation : active learning ; encouraging people to work actively with health workers and others in identifying their own health problems and in developing solutions and plans to work them out • Motivation : Awakening the desire to learn; need for incentives is a first step in learning to change. • Comprehension : Know the level of understanding, education & literacy of people to whom the teaching is directed. (teaching should be within the mental capacity of the audience)
  25. 25. ……..Principles of health education • Reinforcement : Repetition at intervals is necessary to prevent the individual going back to the pre-awareness stage. • Learning by doing : Learning is an action- process • Known to unknown: work must proceed from a simple to more complicated, easy to more difficult,….; start with what they understand and then proceed to new knowledge
  26. 26. ……..Principles of health education • Setting an example : set a good example of things that is teaching • Good human relations : Sharing of information happen easily • Feedback : for effective communication • Leaders : learn best from people whom we respect and regard ; penetrate the community through the local leaders – the village headman, the school teacher or the political worker
  27. 27. The basic principles of communication (small/large groups, private, social or political) a - Close, wholehearted listening to the other - and speaking out one’s own truth, b - with self respect and respect of the other c - Envisioning the other as naturally good at the core of being. Presupposing the communication partner as being an approachable human and good willed within. (Assuming it, will tend to evoke it. Recognizing well the pitfalls and addressing false manoeuvres.)
  28. 28. Thank You

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