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TPS, Lean and Agile 
Brief History and Future 
Kiro Harada 
Attractor Inc. 
8/11/2014 HCMC 
9/11/2014 Hanoi
History of Our Jobs
We were Hunters 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PRIMITIVE_MAN_HUNTING_ANIMALS_at_the_Museum_of_Vietnamese_History....
We also were Farmers 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/yuyasekiguchi/8413666440/
Then… 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_people_by_occupation
Number of Professions 
28,275 Occupation Names are registered 
in Ministry of Labor in Japan
We’d improved by 
Specialization
In early 1900’s, 
We decided to go further in specialization: 
Thinkers and Doers
Managers and Workers
Scientific Management 
improving economic efficiency, 
especially labor productivity by 
applying science to the 
engineer...
Manufacturing Line
A Manager for Managers?
Management Hierarchy 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tabulating_Machine_Co_Organization_Chart.jpg
and it worked GREAT!
Is Specialization for 
Improvements?
Hawthorne Experiment 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawthorne_effect
What causes Productivity? 
http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/hawthorne/
Informal Organization
Organizational Sabotage
New Profession: 
Programmer 
Ada Lovelace
Management the Development of 
Large Software Systems 
a.k.a. Waterfall Method
We’d tried to run Software Dev 
just like Manufacturing Factories 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KUKA#mediaviewer/File:BMW_...
but did not work 
Successful 
14% 
Challenged 
54% Cancelled 
32% 
Chaos Report / 1994
I ANALYSIS 
See what 
Winston Royce PROGRAM 
DESIGN 
actually said: 
I coo,.o 
TESTING 
I OPERATIONS 
I SYSTEM 
I ANALYSIS...
The Machine that 
Changed the World 
Toyota’s Secret Weapon 
in the Global Car Wars
Lean Manufacturing 
the expenditure of resources in any 
aspect other than the direct 
creation of value for the end 
cust...
7 Wastes - Muda 無駄 
Transportation 
Inventory 
Motion 
Waiting 
Over-Processing 
Over-Production 
Defects
Toyota Production System 
Figure curtesy of Satoshi Kuroiwa
Multi-skilled Worker 
Skill Map with Training Plans
How TPS was born…
Toyoda Type G Automatic Loom (1924) 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1924_Non-Stop_Shuttle_Change_Toyoda_Automatic_...
Toyota was almost bankrupt 
in 1950’s. 
A major labor dispute resulted in resignation of most 
executives including the fo...
TWI Program in WW II 
(Training Within Industry)
To make your work 
Easier and Safer
Software Crisis
New New Product 
Development Game 
https://hbr.org/1986/01/the-new-new-product-development-game/ar/1
Scrum: 
Ordered Backlog 
Fixed Time-Boxes 
Demo or Die 
Swarming
Swarming
Agile Manifesto 
We are uncovering better ways of developingsoftware by doing it and helping others do 
it.Through this wo...
Conway’s Law 
Any organization that designs a system 
(defined broadly) will produce a design 
whose structure is a copy o...
Organization Architecture 
and Product Architecture
How Software had actually 
been Developed?
Inverse of Controls 
Don’t Call Us, 
We’ll Call You.
What happened to 
Organization Structure
Informal became less 
Informal
Community
Improve Productivity 
Quality by Stopping Specialization 
People are naturally multi-skilled. 
Swarm of People 
Kaizen Min...
Trend continues…
DevOps 
Ideas / Feedbacks 
Monitoring Prioritize 
Deployment 
Working Software / Deployment Pipeline 
Figure curtesy of To...
Lean Startup 
Idea 
Build 
Code 
(Product) 
Measure 
Learn 
Data
Self-Organization 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzjifmHavAQ
http://qz.com/196200/toyota-is-becoming-more-efficient-by-replacing-robots-with-humans/
Future 
Swarming of various skilled people works 
Utilize automation for repeatable processes 
Trend continues to eliminat...
TPS Lean and Agile - Brief History and Future
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TPS Lean and Agile - Brief History and Future

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Talk at Agile Tour HCMC and Hanoi

How we changed the way to work together and how we found TPS, Lean and Agile methods to improve.

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TPS Lean and Agile - Brief History and Future

  1. 1. TPS, Lean and Agile Brief History and Future Kiro Harada Attractor Inc. 8/11/2014 HCMC 9/11/2014 Hanoi
  2. 2. History of Our Jobs
  3. 3. We were Hunters http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PRIMITIVE_MAN_HUNTING_ANIMALS_at_the_Museum_of_Vietnamese_History.JPG
  4. 4. We also were Farmers http://www.flickr.com/photos/yuyasekiguchi/8413666440/
  5. 5. Then… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_people_by_occupation
  6. 6. Number of Professions 28,275 Occupation Names are registered in Ministry of Labor in Japan
  7. 7. We’d improved by Specialization
  8. 8. In early 1900’s, We decided to go further in specialization: Thinkers and Doers
  9. 9. Managers and Workers
  10. 10. Scientific Management improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity by applying science to the engineering of processes and to management. Frederik Taylor
  11. 11. Manufacturing Line
  12. 12. A Manager for Managers?
  13. 13. Management Hierarchy http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tabulating_Machine_Co_Organization_Chart.jpg
  14. 14. and it worked GREAT!
  15. 15. Is Specialization for Improvements?
  16. 16. Hawthorne Experiment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawthorne_effect
  17. 17. What causes Productivity? http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/hawthorne/
  18. 18. Informal Organization
  19. 19. Organizational Sabotage
  20. 20. New Profession: Programmer Ada Lovelace
  21. 21. Management the Development of Large Software Systems a.k.a. Waterfall Method
  22. 22. We’d tried to run Software Dev just like Manufacturing Factories http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KUKA#mediaviewer/File:BMW_Leipzig_MEDIA_050719_Download_Karosseriebau_max.jpg
  23. 23. but did not work Successful 14% Challenged 54% Cancelled 32% Chaos Report / 1994
  24. 24. I ANALYSIS See what Winston Royce PROGRAM DESIGN actually said: I coo,.o TESTING I OPERATIONS I SYSTEM I ANALYSIS PROGRAM DESIGN I coo,.o TESTING I OPERATIONS Figure 2. Implementation steps to develop a large computer program for delivery to a customer. Figure 2. Implementation steps to develop a large computer program for delivery to a customer. I believe in this concept, but the implementation described above is risky and invites failure. The problem is illustrated in Figure 4. The testing phase which occurs at the end of the development cycle is the first event for which timing, storage, input/output transfers, etc., are experienced as distinguished from analyzed. These phenomena are not precisely analyzable. They are not the solutions to the standard partial differential equations of mathematical physics for instance. Yet if these phenomena fail to satisfy the various external constraints, then invariably a major redesign is required. A simple octal patch or redo of some isolated code will not fix these kinds of difficulties. The required design changes are likely to be so disruptive that the software requirements upon which the design is based and which provides the rationale for everything are violated. Either the requirements must be modified, or a substantial change in the design is required. In effect the development process has returned to the origin and one can expect up to a lO0-percent overrun in schedule and/or costs. I believe in this concept, but the implementation described above is risky and invites failure. The problem is illustrated in Figure 4. The testing phase which occurs at the end of the development cycle is the first event for which timing, storage, input/output transfers, etc., are experienced Winston W. Royce (1970). "Managing the Development of Large Software Systems" in: In: Technical Papers as of Western distinguished Electronic Show and Convention from (WesCon) August 25–28, 1970, Los Angeles, USA. in 1970 analyzed. These phenomena are not precisely analyzable. They are not the solutions to the standard partial differential equations One might note of that mathematical there has been a skipping-over of physics the analysis and code for phases. instance. One cannot, of Yet if these phenomena fail to satisfy the various
  25. 25. The Machine that Changed the World Toyota’s Secret Weapon in the Global Car Wars
  26. 26. Lean Manufacturing the expenditure of resources in any aspect other than the direct creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination.
  27. 27. 7 Wastes - Muda 無駄 Transportation Inventory Motion Waiting Over-Processing Over-Production Defects
  28. 28. Toyota Production System Figure curtesy of Satoshi Kuroiwa
  29. 29. Multi-skilled Worker Skill Map with Training Plans
  30. 30. How TPS was born…
  31. 31. Toyoda Type G Automatic Loom (1924) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1924_Non-Stop_Shuttle_Change_Toyoda_Automatic_Loom,_Type_G_1.jpg
  32. 32. Toyota was almost bankrupt in 1950’s. A major labor dispute resulted in resignation of most executives including the founder Kiichiro Toyoda. They had no money to buy extra machines, lines, parts and hire managers.
  33. 33. TWI Program in WW II (Training Within Industry)
  34. 34. To make your work Easier and Safer
  35. 35. Software Crisis
  36. 36. New New Product Development Game https://hbr.org/1986/01/the-new-new-product-development-game/ar/1
  37. 37. Scrum: Ordered Backlog Fixed Time-Boxes Demo or Die Swarming
  38. 38. Swarming
  39. 39. Agile Manifesto We are uncovering better ways of developingsoftware by doing it and helping others do it.Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items onthe right, we value the items on the left more.
  40. 40. Conway’s Law Any organization that designs a system (defined broadly) will produce a design whose structure is a copy of the organization's communication structure. —M. Conway
  41. 41. Organization Architecture and Product Architecture
  42. 42. How Software had actually been Developed?
  43. 43. Inverse of Controls Don’t Call Us, We’ll Call You.
  44. 44. What happened to Organization Structure
  45. 45. Informal became less Informal
  46. 46. Community
  47. 47. Improve Productivity Quality by Stopping Specialization People are naturally multi-skilled. Swarm of People Kaizen Mind
  48. 48. Trend continues…
  49. 49. DevOps Ideas / Feedbacks Monitoring Prioritize Deployment Working Software / Deployment Pipeline Figure curtesy of Tomoharu Nagasawa, Atlassian Evangelist Development
  50. 50. Lean Startup Idea Build Code (Product) Measure Learn Data
  51. 51. Self-Organization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzjifmHavAQ
  52. 52. http://qz.com/196200/toyota-is-becoming-more-efficient-by-replacing-robots-with-humans/
  53. 53. Future Swarming of various skilled people works Utilize automation for repeatable processes Trend continues to eliminate current borders Communities will be more and more important. We seek for better collaboration that scale not by skill specialization.

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