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Urban planning and public health

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Presentation at DAAD student meeting in 2014

Publié dans : Design
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Urban planning and public health

  1. 1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUILT ENVIROMENT & PUBLIC HEALTH Photo Source: http://cdn.theatlanticcities.com/img/upload/2013/12/16/shutterstock_147334538/largest.jpg MENNATULLAH HENDAWY EGYPTIAN URBAN PLANNER MSc. IUSD
  2. 2. AGENDA 1. HISTORY OF THE RELATIONSHIP/CONNECTION 2. REACHING A COMMON GROUND 3. APPRECIATING DIFFERENCES THROUGH ACTIONS FIRST, LET’S AGREE ON WE SEE the world differently, let’s appreciate this difference WE SHARE Common needs WE WANT to Live a happy fruitful life, where HEALTH is a must
  3. 3. Is urban planning about physical design, or about making things easier for the people who live in our urban spaces? ARE WE STRIVING FOR BEAUTIFUL PEOPLE OR BEAUTIFUL CITIES?
  4. 4. 1.HISTORY OF THE RELATIONSHIP/CONNECTION
  5. 5. http://www.theatlanticcities.com/jobs-and-economy/2012/08/brief-history-birth-urban-planning/2365/ http://www.healthycommunitiesbydesign.org/Content/10052/HistoricalPerspective.html THE STORY BEHIND…. ? Are planners striving for beautiful people or beautiful cities? Before then three types of people thinking about how a city should look and function — architects, public health officials, and social workers. + first urban planning school, at Harvard. Cities focused on place at the expense of people. 1898 A Brief History of the Birth of Urban Planning
  6. 6. Before then three types of people thinking about how a city should look and function — architects, public health officials, and social workers. first urban planning school, at Harvard. Cities focused on place at the expense of people. Protestors outside the Cleveland, Ohio, city hall on January 20, 1970, protesting the city's air pollution. ( ©Bettmann/Corbis. Reproduced by permission. http://www.pollutionissues.com/Fo-Hi/Health- Human.html#b#ixzz2yWFmFFhy THE STORY BEHIND…. ? Are planners striving for beautiful people or beautiful cities? + A Brief History of the Birth of Urban Planning 1898 CONNECTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH? Both professions spawned during the 19th century in response to social and economic crises http://www.theatlanticcities.com/jobs-and-economy/2012/08/brief-history-birth-urban-planning/2365/ http://www.healthycommunitiesbydesign.org/Content/10052/HistoricalPerspective.html
  7. 7. CONNECTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH? Both professions spawned during the 19th century in response to social and economic crises THE STORY BEHIND…. Local governments started to control land use through zoning laws  preventing factories from locating close to neighborhoods  segregate communities, and supported the growth of suburbs. weakened connection between work, home, retail and other daily services, isolating them from one another and making them accessible only by car. Improvements in the transportation system People were protected from infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera but they now faced new epidemics such as obesity, asthma, heart disease and diabetes, all related to the design of the built environment.
  8. 8. DOCTORS ARE FROM MARS AND URBAN PLANNERS ARE FROM VENUS THE STORY BEHIND…. The city as a metabolism. Courtesy H+N+S Landscape Architects for the IABR 2014
  9. 9. Some more Facts… http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25762 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2010/urban_health_20100407/en/ http://nextcity.org/daily/entry/using-biodiversity-as-a-predictor-of-urban-health http://www.nwcphp.org/communications/news/urban-planning-presentation/image_250 In 2008, The number of people living in urban areas outnumbered those living in rural areas for the first time in history! The world is rapidly urbanizing with significant changes in our living standards, lifestyles, social behaviour and health. outdoor urban air pollution kills some 1.2 million people worldwide. WHAT IS HAPENNING NOW? Globally, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among youth
  10. 10. Some more Facts… http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25762 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2010/urban_health_20100407/en/ http://nextcity.org/daily/entry/using-biodiversity-as-a-predictor-of-urban-health http://www.nwcphp.org/communications/news/urban-planning-presentation/image_250 WHAT IS HAPENNING NOW? • rapid population growth outpaces the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructure • leading to the proliferation of informal settlements. • Urbanization, both in the developed and particularly in the developing world, is accompanied by a concentration of poverty.
  11. 11. AN URGENT NEED FOR ACTION 2. REACHING A COMMON GROUND
  12. 12. The well-being of society. PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS URBAN PLANNING DEFINITION The process that regulates development in neighborhoods, cities, and regions. It’s a broad multidisciplinary field that doesn't only deal with zoning issues
  13. 13. It creates community-based strategies to prevent disease and promote health. PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS URBAN PLANNING DEFINITION Planners deal with; transportation systems, economy, natural resources, urban design, and physical facilities. That all come together to define our cities.
  14. 14. It creates community-based strategies to prevent disease and promote health. PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS URBAN PLANNING DEFINITION Planners deal with; transportation systems, economy, natural resources, urban design, and physical facilities. That all come together to define our cities.
  15. 15. PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS URBAN PLANNING THE LINK
  16. 16. It studies how the environment and our behavior impacts our livelihood and health. Our behaviors are also influenced by our environment. PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS URBAN PLANNING THE LINK Our built environment influences behavior and choices of people based on what is available and convenient. In turn this can shape our lifestyles and health outcomes. Applying health trends knowledge helps create new community policies, building codes, and changes the practice of urban planning.
  17. 17. Applying this knowledge helps create new community policies, building codes, and changes the practice of urban planning. PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS URBAN PLANNING THE LINK Our built environment influences behavior and choices of people based on what is available and convenient. In turn this can shape our lifestyles and health outcomes. “Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention Report on Urban Planning and Public Heath
  18. 18. HOW CAN URBAN PLANNING AND PUBLIC HEALH ADD TO EACHOTHER? 3. APPRECIATING DIFFERENCES THROUGH ACTIONS
  19. 19. PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE ‫الوقاية‬ٌ‫خير‬‫من‬‫العالج‬ Louis Pasteur
  20. 20. HEALTHY URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN Healthy lifestyles Social cohesion Equity Aesthetics Quality of Land & Natural Resources & Climate Stabi Air & Water Quality Safety Accessibility Local low input food production and distribution Housing quality
  21. 21. LIVABLE STREET PROJECT - New York City’s Department of Transportation
  22. 22. LINKING HEALTH TO THE URBAN SCALES Healthy Urban Planning and Development (courtesy of Billie Giles-Corti)
  23. 23. LINKING HEALTH TO THE URBAN SCALES Coverage of urban scale by components of the urban environment http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/114448/E93987.pdf
  24. 24.  Comprehensive urban planning strategy It’s time to ACCEPT THE RESPONSIBILITY CONCLUSION  Participatory and inclusive urban planning approaches  Physical activity/transportation policies/urban design  Establish partnerships with health organisations (e.g WHO)  Communication with key stakeholder groups. (e.g. raising awareness among builders and financers )  developing regulatory and legislative options and incentives for implementation. (e.g Compact urban form and mixed use of city areas)
  25. 25. THANK YOU ‫شكرا‬ DANKESLUM AREA IN INDIA http://www.imaginarylife.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/inside-netaji-nagar_sq.jpg ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬َ‫اه‬َ‫ي‬‫َح‬‫أ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬‫َّن‬َ‫أ‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ف‬‫ا‬َ‫ي‬‫َح‬‫أ‬َْ‫ماس‬‫ن‬‫ال‬ْ‫ا‬ً‫يع‬َِ‫َج‬‫﴿املائدة‬:٣٢﴾ And whoever saves one[soul] - it is as if he had saved mankind entirely (Surat Al-Mā'idah, 32) Holy Quran

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