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(European Countries)
CROSS-CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP STYLES
Presenter: Mohsen Sharifirad
Supervisor: Dr. Mirdamadi
DIFFERENT CULTURES HAVE
DIVERSE CONCEPTS OF LEADERSHIP
CULTURAL CATEGORIES AT
CROSS-CENTURY
Germany and the Netherlands ex...
Marked differences in values and behavior are
observable in the north and south of such countries as
Italy, France and Ger...
People can be classified according to their religion
(Muslim, Christian, Hindu) or ethnic/racial origin
(Caucasian, Asian, ...
.
His five dimensions included:
1. power distance(Low vs . high power distance)
2. collectivism versus individualism,
3. f...
✦ predict a culture’s behavior,
✦ clarify why people did what they did,
✦ avoid giving offense,
✦ search for some kind of ...
The Lewis Culture Model
 The model classifies cultures into
three main types:
- Linear-active
- Multi-active
- Reactive
R...
The Lewis Model:
Linear-active
 These are logical thinkers who carefully plan and
manage their actions.
 They do things ...
The Lewis Model:
Multi-active
 These are more energetic people who prioritize their
work based on feeling as much as thou...
The Lewis Model:
Multi-active
 Reactives are also interested in relationships, but are
cooler than multi-actives, valuing...
The Lewis Model
The Lewis Model (Europe Countries)
LINEAR-ACTIVE MULTI-ACTIVE REACTIVE
Talks half the time Talks most of the time Listens most of the time
Gets data from sta...
Leadership
Styles
British managers are diplomatic, casual, helpful, willing to
compromise, and seeking to be fair,
though ...
French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an
impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company....
Leadership
Styles
Swedish management is decentralized and democratic.
The rationale is that better informed employees are ...
Leadership
Styles
French management style is
more autocratic than the
German
German managers strive to create a perfect sy...
Leadership
Styles
Leadership in the Netherlands is based on merit, competence,
and achievement.
Managers are vigorous and ...
Leadership
Styles
Efforts made by Russian managers to promote business through
official channels may founder on the rocks ...
Leadership
Styles
Finnish leaders exercise control from a position just outside and
above the ring of middle managers,
who...
Leadership
Styles
Spanish leaders, like French, are autocratic and charismatic.
Unlike the French,
they work less from log...
Leadership
Styles
In democratic Norway, the boss is very much in the center of
things, and staff enjoy access to him or he...
Leadership
Styles
The older generation of Lithuanian managers has not completely
freed themselves of bureaucratic habits f...
Leadership
Styles
Despite external pressures, the Polish retain many traditional
romantic values.
However, meritocracy inc...
Leadership
Styles
Turkish managers are still influenced by the tenets of
Kemal Ataturk.
A democratic republic is partially...
(European Countries)
Presenter: Mohsen Sharifirad
Supervisor: Dr. Mirdamadi
Cross-Culture and Leadership Styles
Thanks !
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Culture and leadership

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Cultures and Leadership Styles
-Richard Lewis Model

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Culture and leadership

  1. 1. (European Countries) CROSS-CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP STYLES Presenter: Mohsen Sharifirad Supervisor: Dr. Mirdamadi
  2. 2. DIFFERENT CULTURES HAVE DIVERSE CONCEPTS OF LEADERSHIP CULTURAL CATEGORIES AT CROSS-CENTURY Germany and the Netherlands experience national friction, but they understand and cooperate with each other because they are both linear-active Friction between Korea and Japan occasionally borders on hatred, but their common reactive nature leads to blossoming bilateral trade
  3. 3. Marked differences in values and behavior are observable in the north and south of such countries as Italy, France and Germany, while other states are formed of groups with clearly different historical backgrounds (the United Kingdom with her Celtic and Saxon components, Fiji with her Polynesians and Indians, Russia with numerous subcultures such as Tatar, Finnic, Chechen, etc.).
  4. 4. People can be classified according to their religion (Muslim, Christian, Hindu) or ethnic/racial origin (Caucasian, Asian, African, Polynesian, Indian, Eskimo, Arab), but such nomenclatures contain many inconsistencies—Christian Norwegians and Lebanese, Caucasian Scots and Georgians, Muslim Moroccans and Indonesians, and so on
  5. 5. . His five dimensions included: 1. power distance(Low vs . high power distance) 2. collectivism versus individualism, 3. femininity versus masculinity and, 4. uncertainty avoidance. 5. Later he added long- term versus short-term orientation. Edward T. Hall classified groups as mono- chronic or polychronic, high or low context and past- or future-oriented. Other classification attempts, such as professional, corporate or regional, have too many subcategories to be useful. Generational culture is important but ever changing. Political classification (Left, Right, Cen- trist) has many (changeable) hues, too. Writers such as Geert Hofstede have sought dimensions to cover all cultures
  6. 6. ✦ predict a culture’s behavior, ✦ clarify why people did what they did, ✦ avoid giving offense, ✦ search for some kind of unity, ✦ standardize policies, and ✦ perceive neatness and Ordnung The need for a convincing categorization is obvious. It enables us to
  7. 7. The Lewis Culture Model  The model classifies cultures into three main types: - Linear-active - Multi-active - Reactive Richard Lewis is a linguist who speaks ten languages and who has journeyed far. In his travels he has found he can segment national cultures into three approximate categories (although he also warns of stereotyping).
  8. 8. The Lewis Model: Linear-active  These are logical thinkers who carefully plan and manage their actions.  They do things one at a time, according to schedule, and so are very accurate and efficient in their work.  They like working with others who focus on the task and who appreciate structure and reason.  They can annoy the other types by their focus on the task and lack of consideration for relationships.  Examples Germany, Switzerland
  9. 9. The Lewis Model: Multi-active  These are more energetic people who prioritize their work based on feeling as much as thought.  They switch from task to task based on a combination of apparent urgency and whatever seems more interesting.  They are more social than linear-actives and consider managing relationships as an essential part of the job.  When they disagree they can be loud and emotional, but will quickly forget this as agreement is reached.  Examples Italy, Latin America
  10. 10. The Lewis Model: Multi-active  Reactives are also interested in relationships, but are cooler than multi-actives, valuing courtesy and consideration.  They listen carefully and think hard about what the other person is saying rather than just diving in with their views.  They tend to think widely, seeking principles by which they can work rather than fixed plans or vague intentions.  They seek harmony and will step back and start again if things are not working well.  While not confrontational, they are also persistent and will work with others until they are happy with plans and actions.  Examples Finland, Japan
  11. 11. The Lewis Model
  12. 12. The Lewis Model (Europe Countries)
  13. 13. LINEAR-ACTIVE MULTI-ACTIVE REACTIVE Talks half the time Talks most of the time Listens most of the time Gets data from stats, research Solicits information first-hand from people Uses both data and people sources Plans ahead step by step Plans grand outline only Looks at general principles Polite but direct Emotional Polite and indirect Partly conceals feelings Displays feelings Conceals feelings Confronts with logic Confronts emotionally Never confronts Dislikes losing face Has good excuses Must not lose face Compartmentalizes projects Lets one project influence another Sees the whole picture Rarely interrupts Often interrupts Doesn't interrupt Job-oriented People-oriented Very people-oriented Sticks to the facts Juggles the facts Statements are promises Truth before diplomacy Flexible truth Diplomacy over truth Sometimes impatient Impatient Patient Limited body language Unlimited body language Subtle body language Respects officialdom Pulls strings Networks Separates the social & professional Interweaves the social & professional Connects the social & professional Does one thing at a time Multi tasks Reacts to partner's action Punctuality very important Punctuality not important Punctuality important The Lewis Model: Basic Characteristics
  14. 14. Leadership Styles British managers are diplomatic, casual, helpful, willing to compromise, and seeking to be fair, though they can be ruthless when necessary. Unfortunately, their adherence to tradition can result in a failure to comprehend differing values in others. The feudal and imperial origins of status and leadership in England are still evident in some aspects of British management
  15. 15. French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company. Opinions of experienced middle managers and technical staff may be dismissed. Leadership Styles
  16. 16. Leadership Styles Swedish management is decentralized and democratic. The rationale is that better informed employees are more motivated and perform better. The drawback is that decisions can be delayed.
  17. 17. Leadership Styles French management style is more autocratic than the German German managers strive to create a perfect system. There is a clear chain of command in each department and information and instructions are passed down from the top. Nonetheless, considerable value is placed on consensus.
  18. 18. Leadership Styles Leadership in the Netherlands is based on merit, competence, and achievement. Managers are vigorous and decisive, but consensus is mandatory, as there are many key players in the decision-making process.
  19. 19. Leadership Styles Efforts made by Russian managers to promote business through official channels may founder on the rocks of bureaucracy and Russian apathy. Using key people and personal alliances, the “system” is often bypassed and a good result achieved.
  20. 20. Leadership Styles Finnish leaders exercise control from a position just outside and above the ring of middle managers, who are allowed to make day-today decisions. Finnish top executives have the reputation of being decisive at crunch time and do not hesitate to stand shoulder to shoulder with staff and help out in crises.
  21. 21. Leadership Styles Spanish leaders, like French, are autocratic and charismatic. Unlike the French, they work less from logic than from intuition, and pride themselves on their personal influence on all their staff
  22. 22. Leadership Styles In democratic Norway, the boss is very much in the center of things, and staff enjoy access to him or her most of the time. Middle managers’ opinions are heard and acted upon in egalitarian fashion, but top executives rarely abandon responsibility and accountability.
  23. 23. Leadership Styles The older generation of Lithuanian managers has not completely freed themselves of bureaucratic habits from Soviet times, but young leadership is developing a more dynamic style, with Nordic encouragement.
  24. 24. Leadership Styles Despite external pressures, the Polish retain many traditional romantic values. However, meritocracy increasingly dominates advancement in place of aristocracy.
  25. 25. Leadership Styles Turkish managers are still influenced by the tenets of Kemal Ataturk. A democratic republic is partially supported by the army, in a delicate balance with Islamic Fundamentalists.
  26. 26. (European Countries) Presenter: Mohsen Sharifirad Supervisor: Dr. Mirdamadi Cross-Culture and Leadership Styles Thanks !

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