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Philosophy

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Introduction to Philosophy
Introduction to Philosophy
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Philosophy

  1. 1. https://images.app.goo.gl/Z95DfJMTHu8vdGKYA
  2. 2. PHILOSOPHY INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
  3. 3. PHILOSOPHY
  4. 4. “Philosophy” came from two Greek words: ★ Philo which means “to love” ★ Sophia which means “wisdom” ● Philosophy originally meant “love of wisdom.” ● Philosophy is also defined as the science that by natural light of reason studies the first causes or highest principles of all things.
  5. 5. ● Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. ● Philosophy in simple words is a way of thinking about the world, the universe, and society. It works by asking very basic questions about the nature of human thought, the nature of the universe, and the connections between them. The ideas in philosophy are often general and abstract.
  6. 6. ● Philosophy is the study of humans and the world by thinking and asking questions. It is a science and an art. Philosophy tries to answer important questions by coming up with answers about real things and asking "why?"
  7. 7. SCIENCE ➢It is an organized body of knowledge. ➢It is systematic. ➢It follows certain steps or employs certain procedures.
  8. 8. NATURAL LIGHT OF REASON ➢It uses a philosopher’s natural capacity to think or human reason or the so-called unaided reason.
  9. 9. STUDY OF ALL THINGS ➢It makes philosophy distinct from other sciences because it is not one dimensional or partial. ➢A philosopher does not limit himself to a particular object of inquiry. ➢Philosophy is multidimensional or holistic.
  10. 10. First Cause or Highest Principle ➢ Principle of Identity – whatever is; whatever is not is not. Everything is its own being, and not being is not being. ➢ Principle of Non-Contradiction – it is impossible for a thing to be and not to be at the same time. ➢ Principle of Excluded Middle – a thing is either is or is not; between being and not-being, there is no middle ground possible. ➢ Principle of Sufficient Reason – nothing exists without sufficient reason for its being and existence.
  11. 11. •Early Greek philosophers studied aspects of the natural and human world that later became separate sciences— astronomy, physics, psychology, and sociology. •Basic problems like the nature of the universe, the standard of justice, the validity of knowledge, the correct application of reason, and the criteria of beauty have been the domain of philosophy from its beginnings to the present. •These basic problems are the subject matter of the branches of philosophy.
  12. 12. The most notable ancient Greek philosophers are: ● He proposed that everything that exists is based on a higher order or plan which he called logos.https://images.app.goo.gl/4i6YAJjNspK CPysE8
  13. 13. Democritus ● He devoted himself to the study of the causes of natural phenomena. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
  14. 14. Diogenes of Sinope ● He was a known advocate of living a simple and virtuous life. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
  15. 15. Epicurus ● He believed that philosophy could enable man to live a life of happiness.. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY
  16. 16. Socrates ● He was considered the foremost philosophers of ancient times. He was credited with formulating the Socratic method- means of examining a topic by devising a series of questions that let the learner examine and analyze his knowledge and views regarding the topic. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
  17. 17. Plato ● A student of Socrates, he wrote down his mentor’s teaching and incorporated some of his own ideas into them. Plato’s most significant ideas included his Theory of Forms, which proposes that everything that exist is based on an idea or template than can only be perceived in the mind. Plato is also known for his dialectic- a method of inquiry where two opposing ideas are discussed in an attempt to arrive at new knowledge. Plato’s lasting contribution to learning was his founding of the Academy, an institution of higher learning.This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
  18. 18. Aristotle ● He attended the Academy, and was the prominent student of Plato. For him, all ideas and views are based on perception and our reality is based on what we can sense and perceive. His studies in logic led to the formulation of a formal process of analyzing reasoning which give rise to deductive reasoning-the process by which specific statements are analysed to reach a conclusion or generalization. http://www.liveyourmagic.com/2014/02/aristotle -the-purpose-of-life/
  19. 19. The Difference Between Holistic Perspective from a Partial Point of View Holistic thinking refers to a perspective that considers large-scale patterns in systems. A holistic perspective requires an individual to have an open mindset and ability to get the general sense or impression regarding a situation. Partial thinking focuses on specific aspects of a situation. The partial view is an important component of analytical thinking, as an individual focuses on certain areas or aspects of a problem in order to understand it.
  20. 20. The term "holistic thinking" refers to a big picture mentality in which a person recognizes the interconnectedness of various elements that form larger systems, patterns and objects. Thinking holistically is the opposite of analyzing something, which involves breaking down a larger system into its details. People tend to apply an analytical perspective when looking at problems or situations. A holistic view gives rise to a more appreciative perspective about life, as we are able to look at life in its totality.
  21. 21. 1. METAPHYSICS •It is an extension of a fundamental and necessary drive in every human being to know what is real. •A metaphysician task is to explain that part of our experience which we call unreal in terms of what we call real. •We try to make things comprehensible by simplifying or reducing the mass of things we call appearance to a relatively fewer number of things we call reality. Thales ➢ He claims that everything we experience is water (“reality”) and everything else is “appearance.”
  22. 22. ➢ We try to explain everything else (appearance) in terms of water (reality). Idealist and Materialist ➢ Their theories are based on unobservable entities: mind and matter. ➢ They explain the observable in terms of the unobservable. Plato ➢ Nothing we experience in the physical world with our five senses is real. ➢ Reality is unchanging, eternal, immaterial, and can be detected only by the intellect. ➢ Plato calls these realities as ideas of forms.
  23. 23. 2. ETHICS •It explores the nature of moral virtue and evaluates human actions. •It is a study of the nature of moral judgments. •Philosophical ethics attempts to provide an account of our fundamental ethical ideas. •It insists that obedience to moral law be given a rational foundation.
  24. 24. SOCRATES ➢To be happy is to live a virtuous life. ➢Virtue is an awakening of the seeds of good deeds that lay dormant in the mind and heart of a person which can be achieved through self-knowledge. ➢ True knowledge = Wisdom = Virtue ➢ Courage as virtue is also knowledge.
  25. 25. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ➢An African-American who wanted equal rights for the blacks. ➢His philosophy uses the same process as Hegel’s dialectic (Thesis > Antithesis > Synthesis).
  26. 26. 3. Epistemology •It deals with nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge. •It explains: (1) how we know what we claim to know; (2) how we can find out what we wish to know; and (3) how we can differentiate truth from falsehood. •It addresses varied problems: the reliability, extent, and kinds of knowledge; truth; language; and science and scientific knowledge.
  27. 27. Sources of knowledge Induction ❖ gives importance to particular things seen, heard, and touched ❖ forms general ideas through the examination of particular facts ❖ Empiricist – advocates of induction method ❖ Empiricism is the view that knowledge can be attained only through sense experience.
  28. 28. Deduction ❖ gives importance to general law from which particular facts are understood or judged. ❖ Rationalist – advocates of deduction method ❖ For a rationalist, real knowledge is based on the logic, the laws, and the methods that reason develops. Pragmatism ❖ the meaning and truth of an idea are tested by its practical consequences.
  29. 29. 4. LOGIC •Reasoning is the concern of the logician. •It comes from the Greek word logike, coined by Zeno, the Stoic (c.340–265BC), which means a treatise on matters pertaining to the human thought. •It does not provide us knowledge of the world directly and does not contribute directly to the content of our thoughts. •It is not interested in what we know regarding certain subjects but in the truth or the validity of our arguments regarding such objects.
  30. 30. Aristotle ★ First philosopher to devise a logical method ★ Truth means the agreement of knowledge with reality. ★ Logical reasoning makes us certain that our conclusions are true. Zeno of Citium ★ One of the successors of Aristotle and founder of Stoicism Other influential authors of logic ★ Cicero, Porphyry, and Boethius ★ Philoponus and Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes
  31. 31. 5. Aesthetics •It is the science of the beautiful in its various manifestations – including the sublime, comic, tragic, pathetic, and ugly. •It is important because of the following: ➢ It vitalizes our knowledge. It makes our knowledge of the world alive and useful. ➢ It helps us to live more deeply and richly. A work of art helps us to rise from purely physical existence into the realm of intellect and the spirit. ➢ It brings us in touch with our culture. The answers of great minds in the past to the great problems of human life are part of our culture.
  32. 32. Hans-Georg Gadamer ★ A German philosopher who argues that our tastes and judgments regarding beauty work in connection with one’s own personal experience and culture. ★ Our culture consists of the values and beliefs of our time and our society.
  33. 33. 6. Political Philosophy ● studies governments and deals with questions of justice, power and the rights and obligations of citizens.
  34. 34. Philosophy of the Human Person ● an area in philosophy that understand the human person from a philosophical perspective.
  35. 35. https://images.app.goo.gl/4i6YAJjNspKCPysE8

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