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“The People vs. the Elite” ProQuest Luncheon, DLC 2019

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An overview of the history of populism in the U.S. and elsewhere with unparalleled insights from primary and secondary sources. Learn about the origins of populism, populist leaders, left- and right-wing populist movements and more.

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“The People vs. the Elite” ProQuest Luncheon, DLC 2019

  1. 1. Populism ProQuest Luncheon, DLC 2019 Product Managers: Andrew Laas, Rick Nelson, and Cathy Johnson
  2. 2. Researching Populism October 22, 2019
  3. 3. Beginning Research with a Book 3
  4. 4. The Populist Vision by Charles Postel | Apr 17, 2009 Introduction: Modern Times Part One: Farmers 1. Push and Energy: Boosterism and Rural Reform 2. Knowledge and Power: Machinery of Modern Education 3. A Better Woman: Independence of Thought and Action 4. A Farmers' Trust: Cooperative Economies of Scale Part Two: Populists 5. Business Politics: State Models and Political Frameworks 6. Race Progress: Racial Ordering of American Life 7. Confederation: Labor, Urban, and Nonconformist Reform 8. Shrine of Science: Innovation in Populist Faith Conclusion: Populist Defeat and Its Meaning Sources Beginning research with a book… 4 Check out the table of contents, the index, and references for search term ideas
  5. 5. William Jennings Bryan A good place to start in Congressional: commemorative remarks ADDRESS BY JOSEPHUS DANIELS, PRESIDENT OF THE BRYAN MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION, AT THE UNVEILING OF THE BRYAN STATUE IN WASHINGTON, D.C., MAY 3, 1934 5
  6. 6. Women in the Populist Movement Annie Diggs 6 Mary Elizabeth Lease
  7. 7. Marion Butler Good places to start in Congressional: • Directories • Congressional Record remarks 7
  8. 8. Marion Cannon Combine search with an area of interest: Cannon AND Chinese exclusion Search Congressional Record for Member statements on topics 8
  9. 9. William Alfred Peffer Good place to start in Congressional: • Member profiles with list of sponsored bills 9
  10. 10. Farmers’ Alliance Witness affiliation search retrieves views of the Colored National Farmers Alliances supporting the Free Silver Movement 10
  11. 11. Thomas E. Watson Congressional hearings: • Differing views • Inserted materials 11 Research: Changes in Party affiliation Changes in interests Changes in racial attitudes
  12. 12. Beginning Research with a Journal 12
  13. 13. Populism and Race • Search PQ platform peer-reviewed full text journals anywhere except full text: U.S. populism • Search Congressional anywhere: Middle America And populist 13
  14. 14. Populism, Globalism, and Patriotism • Search PQ platform peer- reviewed full text journals anywhere except full text: U.S. populism • Search Congressional anywhere: globalism AND patriotism 14
  15. 15. Populism and Authoritarianism • Search PQ platform peer- reviewed full text journals anywhere except full text: U.S. populism • Search Congressional anywhere: populism NEAR authoritarianism 15
  16. 16. Beginning Research with CRS Reports 16
  17. 17. Populism in Europe and Latin America Search Populis* Anywhere except full text 17
  18. 18. Populism and Agriculture Search Populist OR Populism Anywhere Sort by relevance 18
  19. 19. Populism 1926-2019 Change sort from oldest to newest 19
  20. 20. Know-Nothings, Greenbackers, and the People’s Party 20
  21. 21. Populism in the 19th Century • Nativist “Native American Association” secretly formed in 1837. • Anti-foreign and anti-Catholic nativist sentiment (in NY state and elsewhere) • American Republican Party established in 1843 • Opposed voting and officeholding by immigrant Catholics • Changed its name to the Native American Party in 1845 • Focus was on changes to the naturalization laws • Violent Protestant and Catholic clashes in Philadelphia in 1844 • Groundswell of nativist sentiment led to many memorials and petitions which spawned hearings on naturalization laws and election fraud by new immigrants 21
  22. 22. Know Nothings / American Party • Also known as the Native American Party/ American Party (after 1855) • Previous Anti-Catholic and Anti-Immigrant movement was revived after the election of 1852 • Active in the 1850s, but was all but gone by 1860 • Originated from secret societies arising in reaction of the flood of Irish and other immigrants Major concerns: 1. extend naturalization period to 21 years 2. Elect only native born to all offices 3. Reject all foreign interference (including Roman Catholic) in all institutions 22
  23. 23. Know Nothings / American Party • Know Nothings were influential, but their concerns were NOT legislatively successful. • January 1850 Lewis Charles Levin (AP, Penn) gave notice of motion to introduce a bill extending naturalization period to 21 years. It was listed in the notification of bills in February 1850, but there is no evidence of it actually being introduced and the effort went nowhere legislatively. • A few days later, Levin submitted a 5 year old (1845) Memorial from citizens of Pennsylvania on Naturalization that had previously been referred to the Committee of the Judiciary • This had been one of the reasons for the 1845 hearing on Naturalization) • In the naturalization bill that WAS introduced in that year, the 21 year residence requirement was NOT included 23
  24. 24. Know Nothings / American Party • In the 34th Congress (1855-57), they had 5 Senators and 43 Congressmen. • Know Nothing coalition was pivotal in choosing the Speaker (Nathanial Banks, after 133 ballots for the speakership), but had little influence in crafting legislation 24
  25. 25. Know Nothings / American Party 25 • Resolutions of legislature of Massachusetts on amendment of naturalization laws, April 13, 1855 • Advocated to extending “the term of residence” for those non-native born for voting. • Signed by Daniel C. Eddy, Speaker of Mass House, Henry W. Benchley, President of Mass Senate, and Henry J. Gardner, Governor of Massachusetts
  26. 26. Know Nothings / American Party • The American Party was opposed to the part of the Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854 that allowed for alien suffrage. • Emerson Etheridge (Whig, TN), during the debates on the 1856 House Speakership, noted that opposition was not unique to the American Party– for example, John Singleton Millson (D Va) was also noted as opposing aliens gaining the vote. • However, the ideals of the American Party were hardly universally shared. • For example, the central Know-Nothing plank that no foreign born or Roman Catholic should ever hold public office was roundly criticized by Alexander Hamilton Stephens—as unconstitutional. • Religious tests, in particular, he noted are specifically banned in the Constitution. 26
  27. 27. Know Nothings / American Party • The anti-foreign crime bill was read and only reported upon in the House • On August 16, 1856, the House Committee on Foreign Affairs issued a report on “Foreign Criminals and Paupers”. • Main point of the committee • this issue was centrally and constitutionally important because the immigrant criminals were out to “invade the sanctity and purity of the ballot-box, and destroy the freedom of the elective franchise” 27
  28. 28. Know Nothings / American Party • This is a pivotal debate in Congress on Feb 24, 1857 and one in which perfectly illustrates the regionalism of the issue and indicates one reason why naturalization period wasn’t expanded to 21 years of residence • Senator Stephen Adams (D, Miss) on the discussion of the entry of Minnesota into the Union used the following torturous logic to advocate for State jurisdiction of the issue: • States have the right to authorize aliens to vote • Since Congress won’t address issues contained in the foreign pauper and criminals bill on a Federal level… • The States should have the right to authorize who is permitted to reside in that state. • After the Committee report, this issue is never brought up again… 28
  29. 29. Know Nothings / American Party • Why did Know Nothingism fail legislatively, while being quite electorally popular and inform later post-Civil War movements? 29
  30. 30. Granger movement of the 1870s • At first a self-improvement group for farmers in 1867, it expanded and focused on railroads –mainly on the state level in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota. • While many of these state laws were poorly worded and eventually turned over in the courts (so that the Grangers rapidly faded in the 1880s), they did set the stage for later national railroad regulations. 30
  31. 31. Greenbackers • Origins in the post-Civil War monetary problems • During the war—widespread use of greenback currency that led to inflation that was good for debtor groups such as laborers and farmers. • After war, govt went back to the gold standard and many people protested this. After 1875 Congress started back onto hard currency specie payments (Specie Payment Resumption Act of 1875 18 Stat. 296) and this led to widespread protests from Southern and Western Farmers • 1876 Greenback Party nominated Peter Cooper for president. Chief goal: repeal of resumption act and reissue of paper currency 31 1874 hearing by the House Committee on Banking and Currency on the problems related to retirement of greenbacks (Treasury notes) issued during the Civil War
  32. 32. Greenbackers • Investigation by a Select Committee Relative to the Causes of the General Depression in Labor and Business, etc., 1879 • Hearings show the combination of traditional agrarian populist concerns with issues important to labor • James Connolly, (National Labor Greenback Party) • Bond system was reason for depression—that it robbed from the working classes. There were heated exchanges between Connolly and the Chairman and other questioners. Clearly, Connolly didn’t understand that if you continually increase the supply of paper money, inflation results. • William Carsey, (National Labor Greenback Party) • Advocates passage of homestead bill: feels it would level the playing field for the government to help transport people out west, give seed and tool loans at low interest rates • Sees reason for depression was a system set up for the banking, landed, and railroad interests that has taken wealth away from the people and concentrated it in the hands of the few extremely wealthy. 32
  33. 33. Greenbackers In 1880, the Greenbackers received only 300k votes for James B. Weaver in the presidential election. The plank included: • Graduated income tax • Women’s suffrage • Government Regulation of interstate commerce • The last Greenback candidate for President was Benjamin F. Butler in 1884 33
  34. 34. Populist Party (People’s Party) • 1892-1908: adopted much of the Greenback Party platform • Ban on Foreign Land ownership, state control of railroads, critical of banking and currency system, graduated income tax, and direct vote of US Senators • Recruited from the Farmers’ Alliances and was an agrarian movement. • Farmers wanted cheaper credit and cheaper transportation costs • Saw themselves as exploited by East Coast financial and industrial concerns that controlled credit and transportation costs. • Focus on RR nationalization and to cheapen credit by using silver as well as gold for currency. It was to reform, not replace capitalism. • Sought to combine the agricultural interests with the labor interests…but failed. • After Civil War, there was a massive drop in farm prices from increased production and transportation revolution that allowed more global competition, but it was blamed on • High railroad charges • High interest rates • Profiteering by middlemen • An international money conspiracy 34
  35. 35. Populist Party (People’s Party) • 1891 People’s Party Convention at Omaha • It was in the main a farmer’s platform written by Ignatius L. Donnelly and included the following planks: • Federal farm loan system • Pensions for former Union soldiers • Get rid of private banks • Federal storage for Crops • 8 hour workday • Direct election of Senators • Nationalization of Railroads • However, the silverites argued that a return to the 16:1 ratio of Silver to Gold would solve all the nation’s problems. • 1892/96 • In 1892, Weaver (1880 Greenbacker candidate) was the People’s Party candidate for President, garnering 1M votes and receiving 22 electoral votes • In 1896, the largely agrarian Omaha platform was essentially abandoned as Silverites came to dominate the movement (William Jennings Bryan was backed both by the Democrats and Populists in 1896). • In 1900 the party had split, but later many of their concerns about private monopolies and agricultural distress were met by Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson 35
  36. 36. Populism in the Twentieth and Twenty- first Century
  37. 37. Huey Long 37 https://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t49.d48.13724_s.doc.20_2? accountid=146910
  38. 38. George Wallace 38
  39. 39. Ross Perot 39 https://congressional.proquest.com/congressional/docview/t29.d30.hrg-1993-ocj- 0021?accountid=146910
  40. 40. Patrick Buchanan 40
  41. 41. Tea Party 41
  42. 42. Occupy Wall Street 42
  43. 43. Occupy Wall Street 43
  44. 44. Bernie Sanders The most important economic reality of our time is that over the past 40 years there has been an enormous transfer of wealth from the middle class to the wealthiest people in America. 44
  45. 45. Donald Trump 45
  46. 46. Elizabeth Warren 46
  47. 47. Questions? Please ask: andrew.laas@proquest.com richard.nelson@proquest.com catherine.johnson@proquest.com Thank you for attending 47