Lipids Biomolecules

S
Shubhrat MaheshwariAssistant professor
Lipid
Presented by- Shubhrat Maheshwari
Assistant Professor
Definition
• A lipid is a type of organic molecule found in living things. It is oily or waxy and
insoluble in water. Fats are made from lipid molecules. Lipids are long chains of
carbon and hydrogen molecules.
• Lipids are a major source of energy for the body, and they provide the hydrophobic
barrier.
• Lipids serve additional functions in the body, for example, some fat-soluble vitamins
have regulatory or coenzyme functions, and the prostaglandins and steroid hormones
have regulatory or coenzyme functions, and the prostaglandins and steroid hormones
play major roles in the control of the body's homeostasis
Chemical nature
1.The basic unit of lipids is triglyceride (glycerol and fatty acids).
2. Lipids have hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains.
3. Soluble in organic solvents.
General Characters of Lipids
- Lipids are relatively insoluble in water.
- They are soluble in non-polar solvents, like ether, chloroform, and methanol.
- Lipids have high energy content and are metabolized to release calories.
- Lipids also act as electrical insulators, they insulate nerve axons.
- Fats contain saturated fatty acids; they are solid at room temperatures.
Example, animal fats.
Example, animal fats.
- Plant fats are unsaturated and are liquid at room temperatures.
- Pure fats are colorless, they have extremely bland taste.
- The fats are sparingly soluble in water and hence are described are
hydrophobic substances.
- They are freely soluble in organic solvents like ether, acetone and benzene.
- The melting point of fats depends on the length of the chain of the constituent
fatty acid and the degree of unsaturation.
General characters of Lipids(cont.)
- Geometric isomerism, the presence of double bond in the unsaturated fatty
acid of the lipid molecule produces geometric or cis-trans isomerism.
- Fats have insulating capacity, they are bad conductors of heat.
- Emulsification is the process by which a lipid mass is converted to a number
of small lipid droplets. The process of emulsification happens before the fats
can be absorbed by the intestinal walls.
can be absorbed by the intestinal walls.
- The fats are hydrolyzed by the enzyme lipases to yield fatty acids and
glycerol.
- The hydrolysis of fats by alkali is called saponification. This reaction results
in the formation of glycerol and salts of fatty acids called soaps.
- Hydrolytic rancidity is caused by the growth of microorganisms which
secrete enzymes like lipases. These split fats into glycerol and free fatty acids.
Classification of lipids
• Classification of lipids
1. Simple lipids: Esters of fatty acids with various alcohols.
a. Fats: Esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Oils are fats in the liquid state.
b. Waxes: Esters of fatty acids with higher molecular weight monohydric alcohols.
2. Complex lipids: Esters of fatty acids containing groups in addition to an alcohol and
a fatty acid.
a. Phospholipids: Lipids containing, in addition to fatty acids and an alcohol, a
phosphoric acid residue. They frequently have nitrogen containing bases and other
substituents, eg, in glycerophospholipids the alcohol is glycerol and in
sphingophospholipids the alcohol is sphingosine.
sphingophospholipids the alcohol is sphingosine.
b. Glycolipids (glycosphingolipids): Lipids containing a fatty acid, sphingosine, and
carbohydrate.
c. Other complex lipids: Lipids such as sulfolipids and aminolipids. Lipoproteins may
also be placed in this category.
3. Precursor and derived lipids: These include fatty acids, glycerol, steroids, other
alcohols, fatty aldehydes, and ketone bodies, hydrocarbons, lipid-soluble vitamins and
hormones.
Examples of lipid
Fatty acids - Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Arachidonic
acid.
- Fats and Oils - Animal fats - Butter, Lard, Human fat, Herring oil.
Plant oils - Coconut oil, Corn, Palm, Peanut, Sunflower oil.
- Waxes - Spermacti, Beeswax, Carnauba wax.
- Waxes - Spermacti, Beeswax, Carnauba wax.
- Phospholipids - Lecithins, Cephalins, Plasmoalogens, Phosphatidyl
inositols, Sphingomyelins.
- Glycolipids - Kerasin, Phrenosin, Nervon, Oxynervon.
- Steroids - Cholesterol.
- Terpenes - Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, Diterpenes, Triterpenes.
- Carotenoids - Lycopene, Carotenes, Xanthophylls.
Fatty acids
Fatty acids: Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with hydrocarbon side chains (4 to 36 carbon).
The fatty acids are broadly class
a) Saturated fatty acids: it contains only single carbon bond chain and a carboxylic group:
• E.g. Palmitic acid: CH3(CH2)14COOH
b) Unsaturated fatty acids: It also contains double bonds with single carbon bond and carboxylic
group. Eg Oleic acid (cis isomer): CH3CH=CH(CH2)7COOH.
Cyclic Fatty acids: containing ring in their structure E.g: Hydnocarpic acid.
Cyclic Fatty acids: containing ring in their structure E.g: Hydnocarpic acid.
Essential Fatty acids: These acids can not be synthesized by the body and therefore should be
supplied in the diet. E.g. Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, arachidonic acid.
Fats: Fats are esters of fatty acids and glycerin also called triacyl glycerols.
Simple Triacyl glycerol contains the same fatty acid in all three positions. E.g. Tripalmitin.
Mixed triacyl glycerol: they contain two or more different fatty acids.
Fatty acids(cont.)
• Tests to determine purity of fat sample are acid value (rancidity
measurement), Saponification number (fatty acid measurement),
Iodine number (unsaturation measurement) and Reichert-Meissl
number (volatile fatty acid measurement).
• Phospholipids: They contain phosphoric acid in addition to alcohol,
nitrogen base and fatty acids eg. Phosphotidic acid.
• Glycolipids: It contains three different molecules, namely amino
• Glycolipids: It contains three different molecules, namely amino
alcohol, fatty acid and a carbohydrate eg. Nervon
• Lipoproteins: Molecular complexs of lipids and proteins are called
as lipoproteins. The protein part is called apoprotein the major
functions are transport and delivery of the lipids.
• Steriods: Compounds containing cyclopentano
perhydrophenanthrene nucleus in their structre are called as
steroids. eg. Cholesterol, aldosterol.
Biological role of lipids
Biological Role of Lipids
1. Food material: Lipids provide food, highly rich in calorific value. One gram lipid
produces 9.3 kilocalories of heat.
2. Food reserve: Lipids provide are insoluble in aqueous solutions and hence can be
stored readily in the body as a food reserve.
3. Structural component: Lipids are an important constituent of the cell membrane.
3. Structural component: Lipids are an important constituent of the cell membrane.
4. Heat insulation: The fats are characterized for their high insulating capacity. Great
quantities of fat are deposited in the subcutaneous layers in aquatic mammals such as
whale and in animals living in cold climates.
5. Fatty acid absorption: Phospholipids play an important role in the absorption and
transportation of fatty acids.
6. Hormone synthesis: The sex hormones, adrenocorticoids, cholic acids and also
vitamin D are all synthesized from cholesterol, a steroidal lipid.
Biological role of lipids(cont.)
7. Vitamin carriers: Lipids act as carriers of natural fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D
and E.
8. Blood cholesterol lowering: Chocolates and beef, especially the latter one, were believed to
cause many heart diseases as they are rich in saturated fatty acids, which boost cholesterol levels
in blood and clog the arterial passage. But researches conducted at the University of Texas by
Scott Grundy and Andrea Bonanome (1988) suggest that at least one saturated fatty acid stearic
acid, a major component of cocoa butter and beef fat, does not raise blood cholesterol level at all.
acid, a major component of cocoa butter and beef fat, does not raise blood cholesterol level at all.
The researchers placed 11 men on three cholesterol poor liquid diets for three weeks each in
random order. One formula was rich in palmitic acid, a known cholesterol booster; the second in
oleic acid; and the third in stearic acid. When compared with the diet rich in palmitic acid, blood
cholesterol levels were 14% lower in subjects put on the stearic acid diet and 10% lower in those
on the oleic acid diet.
9. Antibiotic agent. Squalamine, a steroid from the blood of sharks, has been shown to be an
antibiotic and antifungal agent of intense activity. This seems to explain why sharks rarely
contract infections and almost never get cancer
Chemical structure of Lipids
Thank You
1 sur 14

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Lipids Biomolecules

  • 1. Lipid Presented by- Shubhrat Maheshwari Assistant Professor
  • 2. Definition • A lipid is a type of organic molecule found in living things. It is oily or waxy and insoluble in water. Fats are made from lipid molecules. Lipids are long chains of carbon and hydrogen molecules. • Lipids are a major source of energy for the body, and they provide the hydrophobic barrier. • Lipids serve additional functions in the body, for example, some fat-soluble vitamins have regulatory or coenzyme functions, and the prostaglandins and steroid hormones have regulatory or coenzyme functions, and the prostaglandins and steroid hormones play major roles in the control of the body's homeostasis
  • 3. Chemical nature 1.The basic unit of lipids is triglyceride (glycerol and fatty acids). 2. Lipids have hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains. 3. Soluble in organic solvents.
  • 4. General Characters of Lipids - Lipids are relatively insoluble in water. - They are soluble in non-polar solvents, like ether, chloroform, and methanol. - Lipids have high energy content and are metabolized to release calories. - Lipids also act as electrical insulators, they insulate nerve axons. - Fats contain saturated fatty acids; they are solid at room temperatures. Example, animal fats. Example, animal fats. - Plant fats are unsaturated and are liquid at room temperatures. - Pure fats are colorless, they have extremely bland taste. - The fats are sparingly soluble in water and hence are described are hydrophobic substances. - They are freely soluble in organic solvents like ether, acetone and benzene. - The melting point of fats depends on the length of the chain of the constituent fatty acid and the degree of unsaturation.
  • 5. General characters of Lipids(cont.) - Geometric isomerism, the presence of double bond in the unsaturated fatty acid of the lipid molecule produces geometric or cis-trans isomerism. - Fats have insulating capacity, they are bad conductors of heat. - Emulsification is the process by which a lipid mass is converted to a number of small lipid droplets. The process of emulsification happens before the fats can be absorbed by the intestinal walls. can be absorbed by the intestinal walls. - The fats are hydrolyzed by the enzyme lipases to yield fatty acids and glycerol. - The hydrolysis of fats by alkali is called saponification. This reaction results in the formation of glycerol and salts of fatty acids called soaps. - Hydrolytic rancidity is caused by the growth of microorganisms which secrete enzymes like lipases. These split fats into glycerol and free fatty acids.
  • 7. • Classification of lipids 1. Simple lipids: Esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. a. Fats: Esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Oils are fats in the liquid state. b. Waxes: Esters of fatty acids with higher molecular weight monohydric alcohols. 2. Complex lipids: Esters of fatty acids containing groups in addition to an alcohol and a fatty acid. a. Phospholipids: Lipids containing, in addition to fatty acids and an alcohol, a phosphoric acid residue. They frequently have nitrogen containing bases and other substituents, eg, in glycerophospholipids the alcohol is glycerol and in sphingophospholipids the alcohol is sphingosine. sphingophospholipids the alcohol is sphingosine. b. Glycolipids (glycosphingolipids): Lipids containing a fatty acid, sphingosine, and carbohydrate. c. Other complex lipids: Lipids such as sulfolipids and aminolipids. Lipoproteins may also be placed in this category. 3. Precursor and derived lipids: These include fatty acids, glycerol, steroids, other alcohols, fatty aldehydes, and ketone bodies, hydrocarbons, lipid-soluble vitamins and hormones.
  • 8. Examples of lipid Fatty acids - Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Arachidonic acid. - Fats and Oils - Animal fats - Butter, Lard, Human fat, Herring oil. Plant oils - Coconut oil, Corn, Palm, Peanut, Sunflower oil. - Waxes - Spermacti, Beeswax, Carnauba wax. - Waxes - Spermacti, Beeswax, Carnauba wax. - Phospholipids - Lecithins, Cephalins, Plasmoalogens, Phosphatidyl inositols, Sphingomyelins. - Glycolipids - Kerasin, Phrenosin, Nervon, Oxynervon. - Steroids - Cholesterol. - Terpenes - Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, Diterpenes, Triterpenes. - Carotenoids - Lycopene, Carotenes, Xanthophylls.
  • 9. Fatty acids Fatty acids: Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with hydrocarbon side chains (4 to 36 carbon). The fatty acids are broadly class a) Saturated fatty acids: it contains only single carbon bond chain and a carboxylic group: • E.g. Palmitic acid: CH3(CH2)14COOH b) Unsaturated fatty acids: It also contains double bonds with single carbon bond and carboxylic group. Eg Oleic acid (cis isomer): CH3CH=CH(CH2)7COOH. Cyclic Fatty acids: containing ring in their structure E.g: Hydnocarpic acid. Cyclic Fatty acids: containing ring in their structure E.g: Hydnocarpic acid. Essential Fatty acids: These acids can not be synthesized by the body and therefore should be supplied in the diet. E.g. Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, arachidonic acid. Fats: Fats are esters of fatty acids and glycerin also called triacyl glycerols. Simple Triacyl glycerol contains the same fatty acid in all three positions. E.g. Tripalmitin. Mixed triacyl glycerol: they contain two or more different fatty acids.
  • 10. Fatty acids(cont.) • Tests to determine purity of fat sample are acid value (rancidity measurement), Saponification number (fatty acid measurement), Iodine number (unsaturation measurement) and Reichert-Meissl number (volatile fatty acid measurement). • Phospholipids: They contain phosphoric acid in addition to alcohol, nitrogen base and fatty acids eg. Phosphotidic acid. • Glycolipids: It contains three different molecules, namely amino • Glycolipids: It contains three different molecules, namely amino alcohol, fatty acid and a carbohydrate eg. Nervon • Lipoproteins: Molecular complexs of lipids and proteins are called as lipoproteins. The protein part is called apoprotein the major functions are transport and delivery of the lipids. • Steriods: Compounds containing cyclopentano perhydrophenanthrene nucleus in their structre are called as steroids. eg. Cholesterol, aldosterol.
  • 11. Biological role of lipids Biological Role of Lipids 1. Food material: Lipids provide food, highly rich in calorific value. One gram lipid produces 9.3 kilocalories of heat. 2. Food reserve: Lipids provide are insoluble in aqueous solutions and hence can be stored readily in the body as a food reserve. 3. Structural component: Lipids are an important constituent of the cell membrane. 3. Structural component: Lipids are an important constituent of the cell membrane. 4. Heat insulation: The fats are characterized for their high insulating capacity. Great quantities of fat are deposited in the subcutaneous layers in aquatic mammals such as whale and in animals living in cold climates. 5. Fatty acid absorption: Phospholipids play an important role in the absorption and transportation of fatty acids. 6. Hormone synthesis: The sex hormones, adrenocorticoids, cholic acids and also vitamin D are all synthesized from cholesterol, a steroidal lipid.
  • 12. Biological role of lipids(cont.) 7. Vitamin carriers: Lipids act as carriers of natural fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D and E. 8. Blood cholesterol lowering: Chocolates and beef, especially the latter one, were believed to cause many heart diseases as they are rich in saturated fatty acids, which boost cholesterol levels in blood and clog the arterial passage. But researches conducted at the University of Texas by Scott Grundy and Andrea Bonanome (1988) suggest that at least one saturated fatty acid stearic acid, a major component of cocoa butter and beef fat, does not raise blood cholesterol level at all. acid, a major component of cocoa butter and beef fat, does not raise blood cholesterol level at all. The researchers placed 11 men on three cholesterol poor liquid diets for three weeks each in random order. One formula was rich in palmitic acid, a known cholesterol booster; the second in oleic acid; and the third in stearic acid. When compared with the diet rich in palmitic acid, blood cholesterol levels were 14% lower in subjects put on the stearic acid diet and 10% lower in those on the oleic acid diet. 9. Antibiotic agent. Squalamine, a steroid from the blood of sharks, has been shown to be an antibiotic and antifungal agent of intense activity. This seems to explain why sharks rarely contract infections and almost never get cancer