2. BASIC RULES
What is a predicate?
In traditional grammar, a sentence consists of
. a subject,
.a predicate which modifies the subject.
3. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
When the subject and the predicate are connected with a linking verb, the predicate
is eithernominal, adjectival oradverbial complement
He is the pre side nt.
These are the candidate s.
She is be autiful.
They are care le ss .
He is in the kitche n.
We are in the ho use .
4. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
FINITE ANDNON-FINITE VERBS
Finite verb forms are marked by inflection and indicate
person, numberand tense. A finite verb can be the
single main verb in a sentence.
For example, the finite forms of the verb g o are:
g o (present tense in all persons except the third
I g o to scho o l in the afte rno o n.
g o e s (present tense in the third person singular)
Mia g o e s to scho o l by bus e ve ry day.
we nt (past tense)
Ye ste rday, we we nt to scho o l at 9 am .
5. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERBGO ARE:
I can't go with you.
Unfortunately, she had to go
I like going to the cinema.
Carol suggested going for a walk.
gone (past participle)
Jack has gone away on holiday.
By the time Sue returned, the others had gone back to their cars
going (present participle)
I'm going to a concert tonight.
I heard my dad going up the stairs.
6. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The finite verbs are in bold in the following
sentences, and the non-finite verbs are
Verbs appear in almost all sentences.
This sentence is illustrating finite and non-
The dog will have to be trained well.
Tom promised to try to do the work
7. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
In many languages (including English), there can
be just one finite verb at the root of each clause
(unless the finite verbs are coordinated), whereas
the number of non-finite verbs can reach up to
five or six, or even more, e.g.
He was believed to have been told to have himself
Finite verbs can appear in dependent clauses as
well as independent ones:
John said that he enjoyed reading.
Something you make yourself seems better than
something you buy.
8. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The first type of verb in English is the copular
verbs are English verbs that link the subject
complement in the
predicate to the grammatical subject. Some common
verbs in English include:
9. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The second type of verb in English is the
intransitive verb. Intransitive verbs are English
verbs that cannot or do not take objects. Some
common intransitive verbs in English include:
The baby co ug he d.
The old woman die d.
My dog dre am s about chasing rabbits.
We we nt to the fair.
10. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The third type of verb in English is the transitive
verb. Transitive verbs are English verbs that
take direct objects. Another name for verbs that
take only a direct object is monotransitive verb.
Monotransitive verbs take only one object. Some
common transitive verbs in English include:
The man to re the paper.
A burglar sto le my necklace.
Rabbits de stro y my garden every year.
11. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The fourth type of verb in English is the
ditransitive verb. Ditransitive verbs are English
verbs that take both direct objects and indirect
objects. Some common ditransitive verbs in
Maureen g ave Dan the pencil.
My husband bo ug ht me some flowers.
The police caug ht themselves a criminal.
Please pass me the rice
12. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Ergative verbs are both transitive and intransitive
!!! Common ergative verbs are:
burn I've burned the toast.
The toast has burned.
bre ak The wind broke the branches.
The branches broke.
13. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Verbs and objects
Some examples of verbs and objects:
verb + object
We re ally e njo ye d theevening. Thanks.
verb + no object
Paula sm ile d and le ft.
verb + two objects
The y g ave us coffee.
verb + wh-clause
I can’t be lie ve what hetoldme.
verb + that-clause
I kno w (that) you’retellingthetruth.
15. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
A direct object shows who or what the action of
the verb affects:
That co m pute r hasn’t g o t amouse.
No bo dy write s letters the se days.
Do e s she play tennis
Shawn and Gus | played | soccer.
Juliet | bought | contact lenses.
The girl | was eating | some fruit.
Christine | has discovered | a pile of rare books.
16. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
An indirect object is usually a person or an animal. The
indirect object (underlined) receives or is affected by the
direct object (in bold). An indirect object always needs a
direct object with it and always comes before the direct
She g ave the do g its dinner.
Do I o we yo u somemoney
!!! We can often rephrase such sentences with a prepositional
phrase using to or fo r + the recipient. In this case, the direct
object usually comes first.
direct object + prepositional phrase with to /fo r
He always g ive s too muchhomework to the class
I ne ve r buy flowers fo r he r. She ’s alle rg ic to the m .
17. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
!!!Here are some verbs that often take an
indirect object + direct object or a prepositional
phrase with to
!!!Here are some verbs that often take an
indirect object + direct object or a prepositional
phrase with fo r:
buy find get
make order save
18. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
All prepositional verbs (underlined below) take an
object afterthe preposition:
I do n’t liste n to theradio m uch.
It de pe nds o n the weather.
No objects with linking verbs
We don’t use objects with linking verbs (appe ar, be ,
be co m e , lo o k, se e m , etc.). We use adjective phrases,
noun phrases, adverb phrases or prepositional phrases
as subject complements (underlined below), to give
more information about the subject:
This is Lucy. She ’s m y siste r-in-law.
I felt re ally tire d.
I was in the g arde n whe n yo u rang .
20. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
An adjunct is a phrase which is not necessary to
the structure of the clause, but which adds some
extra meaning to it.
In the sentence The y waite d o utside fo r ag e s , the
phrases o utside and fo r ag e s add extra meaning
to waite d. They tell us where, and for how long,
the people waited. They are adjuncts:
[S]The y [V]waite d [A]outside[A]forages
[S][V]Ike pt [O]a co py o f the le tte r [A]inmydesk.
[S]She [A]quickly[V]re alise d [O]he r m istake .
[A]Suddenly, [S]it [V]starte d to rain
21. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
1) Paul lives in London.
(2) Paul met Peter in London.
Paul in (1-2) is the subject of the verbs live s in
(1) and m e t in (2). Subjects are
arguments. Pe te r is the object of the
verb m e t in (2). Objects are arguments, too.
The PP in Lo ndo n is an argument in (1),
because without a locative PP live s would
mean something else. In (2), however, in
Lo ndo n can be omitted without affecting the
meaning of the predicate, hence the PP in (2)
is an adjunct.
22. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
We use adverbs to give more information about the verb.
We use adverbials of manner to say how something happens or how
something is done:
The children were playing happily.
He was driving as fast as possible.
We use adverbials of place to say where something happens:
I saw him there.
We met in London.
We use adverbials of time to say when or how often something happens:
They start work at six thirty.
They usually go to work by bus.
We use adverbials of probability to show how certain we are about
Perhaps the weather will be fine.
He is certainly coming to the party.
23. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Subject – Verb – Verb Phrase Complement
My daughter | argued | about washing the
The neighbors | are listening | to terrible
Our favorite professor | objects | to
You | should have apologized | forrunning
overmy Aunt Betty.
My parents | were looking | at my cellphone
Our landlord | will agree | to a reduced rent
24. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Subject – Verb – Subject Complement
My favorite subject | is | grammar.
This apple | tastes | very sour.
That recipe | seems | ratherdifficult.
The darkest time of the night | is | after
Her favorite hobby | was | gardening
Your guest | can be | whomeveryou want to
25. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
A subject complement gives us more information about the
subject. It usually comes after linking verbs and sense verbs
(including be , se e m , sm e ll, taste ), and after change of state
verbs (including g o , g e t, be co m e ).
!!!!! Subject complements can be adjective phrases, noun
phrases, adverb phrases or prepositional phrases:
That rice taste s quitesweet. (subject + adjective phrase)
It se e m s alongtimesince this m o rning . (subject + noun
A:Where are you?
B:I’m upstairs. (subject + adverb phrase)
It stillsm e lls of paint in he re . (subject + prepositional phras
26. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
!!!! Subject complements are not the same as
He m arrie d afamous writer.
a fam o us write r is a different person = the object
He be cam e afamous writer.
be co m e is a linking verb; a fam o us
write r describes the subject = the same person
27. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Complex-transitive construction(the attributive
Attributive ditransitive verbs also take two objects: a
direct object and an object complement. For
The committee nam e d me the new president.
The clown g o t the children too excited.
We all co nside r her unworthy.
The guards painte d the roses red.
The judge rule d her out of order.
28. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
We also use adjective phrases to give more information about
an object (underlined) so as to complete its meaning (object
Sitting in traffic drive s m e crazy.
The fire has m ade the ro o m muchwarmer.
Mo ne y do e sn’t always m ake us happy
The American people | elected | John F. Kennedy president.
I | will paint | my bathroom ceiling | crimson red.
Christians, Jews, and Muslims | consider | Jerusalem | holy.
The evidence | has proven | the accused man | innocent.
29. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Finite clauses must contain a verb which
shows tense. They can be main clauses or
Is it raining? (main: present)
Ispoketo Jo anne last nig ht. (main: past)
We didn’t g e t any fo o d be cause
we didn’t have e no ug h tim e . (main: past;
30. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Non-finite clauses contain a verb which does not show tense. We
usually use non-finite verbs only in subordinate clauses. We usually
understand the time referred to from the context of the main clause.
We often use a non-finite clause when the subject is the same as
the subject in the main clause:
Ihad so m e thing to e at beforeleaving. (I had something to eat
before I left.)
Afterhavingspent six ho urs at the ho spital, the y e ve ntually cam e
ho m e .
Helpedbylocal volunteers, staff at the m use um have spe nt m any
ye ars so rting and catalo g uing m o re than 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 pho to g raphs.
He le ft the party and we nt ho m e , not havinganyoneto talkto.
The pe rso n to ask about goingto New Zealandis Be ck.
Yo u have to lo o k at the picture re ally care fully inordertoseeall the
31. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Main (independent) clauses and subordinate
Main (or independent) clauses can form sentences on their own.
They aren’t dependent on other clauses. They are always finite
(they must contain a verb which shows tense).
Subordinate (or dependent) clauses cannot form sentences on their
own. They are dependent on main clauses to form sentences. They
can be finite or non-finite (the main clauses are in bold; the
subordinate clauses are underlined):
Ididn’t goto work be cause Iwasn’t fe e ling ve ry we ll.
Hestudiedviolinandmathematics be fo re taking a m e dicalde g re e
and do ing po stg raduate wo rk in bio physics at Harvard .
Shehadprettyhairandmust havebeennice-lookingwhe n she was
yo ung .
If Ite llhim will hebeangry?
32. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
There are four basic sentence structures:
1. Simple – 1 independent clause
2. Compound – 2 or more independent
3. Complex – 1 independent clause, 1 or more
4. Compound-Complex – 2 or more
independent clauses, 1 or more subordinate
The length of the sentence does not
necessarily alter its structure identity.
33. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
A simple sentence consists of a single
It contains a subject and a verb.
It can be short or long.
It does not contain any subordinate clauses.
Ex. The siren sounded.
Ex. Art and Archeology reflect and explain
34. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
A compound sentence consists of two or more
The independent clauses are joined by a
comma, a semicolon, or a coordinating
conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet).
Ex. The population of Israel is approximately
4,700,000, but only 8 percent of the people
live in rural areas.
35. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
A compound-complex sentence consists of
two or more independent clauses and one or
more subordinate clauses.
Ex. As he was le aving fo r scho o l, Larry
remembered to take his lunch, but he forgot
the report that he had finishe d the nig ht
be fo re .
36. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The origin of language
The Divine Source
In most religions, it is believed that language is
a God-given gift to human species. In
Christianity, God gave Adam the kingdom of
all animals in the Garden of Eden and the first
thing Adam did was to name these animals.
That is how language started according to
37. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The Natural Sound Source
‘The “Bow-bow” Theory’
All languages have sounds that mimic the
natural sounds. These are called
onomatopoeic words. Some examples from
Turkish are şırıl şırıl, hav hav, miyav, lıkır lıkır,
etc. One belief is that human languages
originated from these onomatopoeic words
that mimic the sounds of entities or actions to
which they refer. Thus, for example, miyav
originally would be a word to refer to cats.
38. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The “Pooh-pooh” Theory’
According to this assumption language
originated with the use of sounds that reflect
emotions such as pain, fear, hunger, surprise,
and the sounds of laughter and crying, etc.
Some examples of these sounds are üf, ayyy,
yaa, vay, etc. However, these sounds of
emotion do not necessarily exist in the
vocabulary of human language.
39. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
‘The “Yo-heave-ho” Theory’
According to this proposal, early human
beings used some sounds when they were
doing some collaborative work. For example,
when they were lifting a huge animal that they
hunted, they used sounds to do their task for
physical coordination and to reach their
message to their friends that they share the
burden of their job. It is claimed that these
sounds eventually turned out into a language.
40. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The Oral-Gesture Source
People use some nonverbal communication when
they speak. For example, we wave hands to say
good-bye; we nod our heads to show our approval
or to mean ‘yes’, we produce a sound by our
tongue when we mean ‘no’. The oral-gesture
source suggests that language started with the
gestures that we use by our mouth and other
The “ta-ta” hypothesis states that language and
the development of sound was generated to
support the hand gestures and movements of the
41. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Our ancestors became bipedal (standing and
walking on their two legs) about 3.5 million
years ago. When these humans could stand
on their two legs, their larynx (a speech organ
behind Adam’s apple in the human throat)
changed in a way to allow humans to produce
vowel and consonant sounds in human
languages. Human language developed as a
result of this evolutionary change.
42. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
No other species can use language because other animals have a
very different physiology than human beings. Modern human beings
have vocal tract for speaking. Human mouth is small, which makes
it easier to open and close for fast speech production. Human teeth
are in upright position and are regular in size, which allows us to
produce sounds such as, f and v. Human mouth has a complicated
muscle system, which allows us to produce various vowels. Our
tongue can move backwards, forwards, up and down. This allows
us to produce various speech sounds. In fact without these speech
organs, human beings could not have spoken.
In addition, to these changes, human brain has gone through a
number of changes, it became much bigger and specialized for
Researchers have claimed that human beings adapted all these
physiological changes throughout their history and these changes
caused the emergence of human language.
43. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Interactions and Transactions
Human language has two functions: Interactional and transactional.
The interactional function pertains to our contact with other people
socially and expressing our emotions. For example, we greet
people, we ask them how they are, we chat about weather, we
show our friendliness and hostility either by using gestures or by
means of language.
We also use language to transmit knowledge, skills, and
information. For example, we give lectures, we give recipes about
how to cook spinach, we talk about how to build houses, we talk
about news, etc. This is known as the transactional function of
The transactional function of language can only be transferred by
means of language. In other words, we can not educate our
children by using our gestures, we can not transmit knowledge
about our past by only using body movements.
44. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
THE PROPERTİES OF LANGUAGE
In linguistics, displacement is the capability
of language to communicate about things that are
not immediately present (spatially or temporally);
i.e., things that are either not here or are not here
now. Man is apparently almost unique in being
able to talk about things that are remote in space
or time (or both) from where the talking goes on.
Humans can referto past and future time. This
property of human language is called
45. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
A property of language describing the fact that
there is no natural connection between a linguistic
form and its meaning
!!! There are some words in language with sounds
that seemto “echo” the sounds of objects or
activities and hence seemto have a less arbitrary
connection. English examples are cuckoo, crash,
slurp, squel,chor,whirr. However, these
onomatopoeic words are relatively rare in human
46. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Productivity. This entails that our language
serves a purpose. Its purpose is to produce
communication and emit messages that will be
used for further tasks. Although most living
beings produce their own communication for
their own common needs, human language is
unique in that it comes in both written and oral
form and both serve the same goal.
47. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The creativity trait confers our language the
ability to ply the already established norms of
grammar, morphology and syntax into new
words, complete with new semantic goals. For
example, whenever a rock star or someone
famous coins a new word, such word is
accepted and even used globally
48. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Language is not something a person can
inherit from his/her parents, you acquire a
language in a culture with other speakers and
not from parental genes. A baby born in Japan
to Japanese parents which is adopted and
brought up from birth by english speakers in
the United States will inevitably speak english.
49. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The sounds used in language are meaninfully
distinct. The fact that the pronunciation of the
forms back and back leads to a distinction in
meaning can only be due to the difference
between the “p” and “b” sounds in english.
Each sound in the language is treated as
50. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Human language is organized at two levels or
layers simultaneously. This property is called
duality(or “double articulation”). In speech
production, we have a physical level at which we
can produce individual sounds, like n,b,and i. As
individual sounds, none of these discrete forms
has any intrinsic meaning. In a particular
combination such as bin, we have another level
producing a meaning that is different from the
meaning of the combination in nib. So, at one
level, we have distinct sounds, and, at another
level, we have distinct meanings
51. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
FIGURES OF SPEECH
Allegory is a figure of speech in which abstract ideas
and principles are described in terms of characters,
figures and events. It can be employed in prose and
poetry to tell a story with a purpose of teaching an
idea and a principle or explaining an idea or a
principle. The objective of its use is to preach some
kind of a moral lesson
“Faerie Queen”, a masterpiece of Edmund Spenser, is
a moral and religious allegory.
Animal Farm”, written by George Orwell,
John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” is an example of
52. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Allusion: Allusion is an indirect reference to
something usually familiar'. This reference can be
a person in history, bible, politics, a play ora
workof literature.It does not describe in detail
the person or thing to which it refers.
Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her.”
“Romeo” is a reference to Shakespeare’s Romeo,
a passionate lover of Juliet, in “Romeo and Juliet”.
The rise in poverty will unlock the Pandora’s box
This is an allusion to one of Greek
Mythology’s origin myth, “Pandora’s box
53. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
It is common to refer to an antagonist as a villain (the bad
guy) against whoma hero (the good guy) fights in orderto
relieve himself orothers. In some cases, an antagonist may
exist within the protagonist that causes an inner conflict ora
moral conflict inside his mind. This inner conflict (An internal
orpsychological conflict arises as soon as a character
experiences two opposite emotions ordesires; usually virtue
orvice, orgood and evil inside him.) is a major theme of
many literary works e.g. Do cto r Faustus by Christo phe r
Marlo we , Ham le t by William Shake spe are , and A Po rtrait o f
an Artist as a Yo ung Man by Jam e s Jo yce etc. Generally, an
antagonist appears as a fo il to the main character embodying
qualities that are in contrast with the qualities of the main
54. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Aside is a brief markmade by a character
that the othercharacters cannot hear.
Through aside, a charactercomments on what
happens in the play Simply, we can define
aside as a short commentary that reveals
private opinions and reactions of the
55. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Difference between Aside and Soliloquy
The difference between them is that an aside is a
shortercomment, while a soliloquy is a longer
speech and anotherdifference is that aside
reveals hidden secrets orjudgments, whereas
the soliloquy reveals motives, innerthoughts or
internal struggles going in the mind of the
Aside became a popular dramatic technique
during Elizabethan era, when structure and
arrangement of the theaters were changing. Aside
gives special information to the audience about
the plot and otheractors onstage
56. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Old English Literature (500-1100)
Old English Poetry Beowulf-typical old
English verse; Caedmon - a 7th-century poet:
Cynewulf-a 9th-centuiy poet
Old English Prose King Alfred's works;
Later annuls and religious writings; Aelfric and
57. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
long epic heroic poems, which drew on the Bible as
well as on pagan sources for their content
Some poetry was also based on historical events
many writings of this era are chronicles, annals, and
The themes are war, conquest and bravery.
Many eighth-century works depict Anglo-Saxon
resistance against the Vikings
Lament and melancholy are frequently present in
describing man's struggles against his environment,
life's difficulties, and the passage of time.
58. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Often a prologue and epilogue express hope in God's
compassion and mercy.
Examples of such poems include "The Wanderer", "The
Seafarer" and "The Ruin".
Other poems depict the separation of a man and a woman
and the accompanying sadness, such as in "The Wife's
Lament" and "The Husband's Message".
Collectively, Old English poems that lament the loss of
worldly goods, glory, or human companionship are called
Beowulf is the best-known and best-preserved Old English
Caedmon and Cynewulf were well-known Old English
religious poets in the 7th and 9th century respectively
Much Old English poetry is difficult to date and even harder to
assign to specific authors
59. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
Prose developed later than poetry - in the
ninth century - but sometimes it also partly
contained the characteristics of poetry
It was influenced by Latin, the language of the
church and the educated. It consisted of
factual, historical, and religious writings.
It consisted of factual, historical, and religious
60. EĞİTİM AKADEMİ İNGİLİZCE
The origin of drama goes back to brief scenes that monks acted out
in churches to illustrate Bible stories. These later developed into
Sources of drama were primarily Catholic traditions and ceremonies
that were gradually becoming more worldly.
Two strong undercurrents influenced early drama: Folk plays based
on ancient nature culls and pagan traditions; and classic Greek and
Latin drama which were preserved, at least in rudimentary form,
throughout the Dark Ages
Easter and Christmas ceremonies developed into major dramas in
the ninth and tenth centuries. Herod's murderous acts often
became a focal point of Christmas plays with horror and violence
63. In which of the following is a complex transitive
a) More and more teachers are supporting learner
b) Some learners have developed their use of
English to some extent
c) Teachers consider hardworking students co-
teachersin the classroom
d) Most learners pay attention to discipline for
e) Have you handed Ms Hanks your latest English
68. The vast expansion of the Internet ---- unless
people ---- money out of it.
a)has not occurred / used to make
b)might not have occurred / can make
c) should not have occurred / are to make
d)could not have occurred / have to make
e) would not have occurred / could make
69. Teachers ask many questions during the course of instruction, with some teachers
asking as many as 300 to 400 questions a day. Questions are generally asked for
one of two purposes: to maintain student attention or to collect information about
students’ current understanding. Questions asked to maintain attention are often
short ones framed during teaching that require factual responses by a single student.
---- In addition, responses by multiple students are often solicited, and the responses
form the basis for the teacher’s judgement about students’ understanding and serve
as a springboard for further discussion. Which of the following alternatives best
completes the given paragraph?
A) In contrast, questions designed to assess students’ comprehension are often
more open-ended and focus on conceptual understanding.
B) When asking questions, it is important not to call only on students who have their
CShort wait times convey a message to students that answers should be readily
available and do not require careful thought.
D )Paying attention to few students who always share their thinking might cause the
teacher to lose touch with the class as a whole.
E) Questions that necessitate brief and correct responses keep students engaged in
learning and require them to pay continuous attention.