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Social media and scholarly research

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Slides presented to conference of Universiade Albert - Open University of Portugal in Lisbon Feb. 2019

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Social media and scholarly research

  1. 1. Social Media and Scholarly Research Terry Anderson Professor Emeritus Athabasca University nextEd2019 - 1st International Research Conference on Open, Distance and Networked Education
  2. 2. Edmonton Ice Castle Closed Due to Extreme Weather Photo Credit Edmonton Journal
  3. 3. Presentation Overview Social Media, Attention Capitalism and Higher Education Social Media and Teaching Social Media and Research Social Media and Open Publication
  4. 4. Esds www.esds.co.in/blog/past-present-future-cloud-computing/
  5. 5. Cloud Social Media, Google Docs, LMS etc. Teacher
  6. 6. Cloud Data Flow ‘
  7. 7. Cloud Data Flow Learning analytics, learning research etc.
  8. 8. Zuboff, Shoshana (1918) The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the Surviellance Capitalism Behavioural Surplus
  9. 9. “these platforms allows companies to “datafy”, quantify, track, monitor, profile us and sell target adverts to haunt us.” (Lin, 2018),
  10. 10. Each social application we use is a decision to share some parts of our activity with a company or an institution whose values we may not agree with and even whose existence we may be unaware.
  11. 11. 2. Social Networks Benefits In Higher Education Encouraging research results: ○ Timely notifications ○ Increased social presence ○ Increased academic integration in real world ○ Background conversation and network effects ○ Increased persistence ○ Increased learning ■ (see Anderson, T. (in press) Challenges and Opportunities for use of Social Media in Higher Education. Journal of Learning for Development)
  12. 12. Example: Adding a Social Media group to an LMS ● Australian, campus based, quasi experimental study Thai, M., Sheeran, N., & Cummings, D. J. (2019). We're all in this together: The impact of Facebook groups on social connectedness and other outcomes in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 40, 44-49.
  13. 13. Challenges of Social Media ● Growing distrust of major Social Media Platforms ● Lack of teacher control ● Privacy and data ownership ● What if students choose NOT to participate
  14. 14. ● “First, social media users want less toxicity, more civility, and removal of all the bots / trolls / fake news. In short, they want exactly what Facebook and Twitter seem unwilling to do.” Justin Kownacki http://www.justinkownacki.com/social-media-survey-habits-change-2017/
  15. 15. Using Social Media the ‘right way’ Zuckerburg’s way ● “The research shows that when we use social media to connect with people we care about, it can be good for our well-being. We can feel more connected and less lonely, and that correlates with long term measures of happiness and health.” Mark Zuckerburg 2018 https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10104413015393571
  16. 16. Using Social Media the ‘right way’ Stanford Research Facebook deactivation: (i) reduced online activity, including other social media, while increasing offline activities such as watching TV alone and socializing with family and friends; (ii) reduced both factual news knowledge and political polarization; (iii) increased subjective well-being; and (iv) caused a large persistent reduction in Facebook use after the experiment. llcott, H., Braghieri, L., Eichmeyer, S., & Gentzkow, M. (2019). The Welfare Effects of Social Media: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  17. 17. Feel Sorry for Mark? “They started out wanting to make the world a better place using cool technology, and here they are, dealing with all of this democracy and public responsibility stuff, which they never signed up for and honestly don’t have the chops to handle.” Rob Tompson Media Oct 2018 https://medium.com/@sirchutney/why-you-should-love-not-hate-zuckerberg-ce991158e96d
  18. 18. The Athabasca Landing Solution landing.athabascau.ca Social network owned and controlled by the University Based on ELGG open source platform Very flat - all users have same permissions Secure, and permissions for exposure and use made by individual users Major challenge is adoption by teachers/faculty Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2017). Integrating learning management and social networking systems. Italian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(3). http://ijet.itd.cnr.it/article/view/950.
  19. 19. 3. Social Software and Academic Publishing ● Distance Education research focuses on two distinct audiences: ○ Other researchers and grad students ○ Practitioners ● These groups have different measures of quality and use different means of communicating. Including social software. ● Key to research, like education is openness
  20. 20. It is not only Open Universities who argue about what “open” means! ● Gold Open Access– Author fees or support by institutions or societies. ● Green Open Access - Libre – archived on institutional or personal repositories ● Free OPen Access or Gratis– available with or without copyright permission on Academia.edu, Research Gate or Sci-Hub etc.
  21. 21. Academia.edu or ResearchGate – adding social media to research ● Adds followers ● Adds tagging ● Pushes out notifications of ‘similar articles’ ● Pushes citations or mentions to authors ● Some alt-metrics ● Author submits OR ??? to get past copyright - sortof
  22. 22. The Sci-Hub solution ● “as of March 2017, Sci-Hub’s database contains ...85.1% of articles published in toll access journals” ● “Sci-Hub’s coverage of the closed articles in the Web of Science collection was 97.8%” ● Successfully sued by two major publishers - not likely to pay! Himmelstein, D. S., Romero, A. R., Levernier, J. G., Munro, T. A., McLaughlin, S. R., Tzovaras, B. G., & Greene, C. S. (2018). Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature. eLife, 7, e32822. SocialSciences—48Kjournals,4.9M of5.9Marticles(82 Psychology—1.1Kjournals,1.3Mof 1.6Marticles(82.9%) E
  23. 23. What is a Fair Profit Margin?? ● supermarkets typically ranging from 1 to 2 percent. ● natural, organic and gourmet food markets enjoy higher averages from 3.5 to 6 percent (https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/profit-margin-supermarket- 17711.html
  24. 24. What is a Fair Profit Margin?? In 2012 and 2013, Elsevier posted profit margins of more than 40% The Gaurdian 2017 So a couple of weeks ago, LUMCON made a bold move. We canceled all of our paid journal subscriptions. Every. Single. One. Of. Them. Craig McClain 2018 Lousiana Universities Marine Consortium
  25. 25. Elsevier Gets Swedish Court Order, Elsevier.Com blocked in Return
  26. 26. Translated Interview with Sci-Hub founder Alexandra Elbakyan
  27. 27. Sci-Hub on social media
  28. 28. The LibGen Solution LibGen’s main focus is the distribution of its own library infrastructure, including its source code, catalog, and terabyte-sized collection to anyone who wants to start his or her own library. Balázs Bodó, "Library Genesis in Numbers: Mapping the Underground Flow of Knowledge", in Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education, ed. Joe Karaganis, MIT Press, 2018, pp 53-77. [2]
  29. 29. Proprietary Publishers
  30. 30. Conclusion We desperately need more research on educational and research using Social Media 1. Quantitative research - How used? Impact on learning 2. Qualitative research: Impact on “lived reality” of media infused teaching and learning 3. Critical Research: Who is benefiting? who is being exploited by whom? 4. Pragmatic: Interventions in multiple disciplines and measuring effects on learning