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Safety and infection control - Archer NCLEX webinars

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Safety and infection control - Archer NCLEX webinars

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Safety and infection control constitutes 12% of total items on NCLEX as per NCLEX-RN test plan. This webinar will explain all safety issues, isolation precautions frequently tested on NCLEX. Archer focus on SMART-PREP strategy by identifying th highly tested areas, preparing you thoroughly with content review webinars, and repeatedly challenging you with multiple questions from these areas in the Q-bank. Lowest focus is placed on areas that are tested less than 2% times but very high focus placed on areas tested more than 7% time in the test - this SMART-PREP strategy is the reason why Archer NCLEX achieves 99% PASS RATE even for the repeaters.

Safety and infection control constitutes 12% of total items on NCLEX as per NCLEX-RN test plan. This webinar will explain all safety issues, isolation precautions frequently tested on NCLEX. Archer focus on SMART-PREP strategy by identifying th highly tested areas, preparing you thoroughly with content review webinars, and repeatedly challenging you with multiple questions from these areas in the Q-bank. Lowest focus is placed on areas that are tested less than 2% times but very high focus placed on areas tested more than 7% time in the test - this SMART-PREP strategy is the reason why Archer NCLEX achieves 99% PASS RATE even for the repeaters.

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Safety and infection control - Archer NCLEX webinars

  1. 1. Safety and Infection Control Archer NCLEX Review Crash Course www.ArcheReview.com These slides are very brief summary of the high- yield Archer NCLEX Safety-Infection control webinar. We recommend subscribing to full webinar – Live or OnDemand for maximum benefit
  2. 2. Welcome! ● Please stay muted so that there is no background noise. ● If you have a question please enter it in the chat or use hand icon so I can unmute you. I will see your question but the rest of the group will not - I will either type a response to you personally or address the question out loud to the group. ● We will be take a 10 minute break halfway through course.
  3. 3. Archer SMART NCLEX PREP Strategy – Focus on Highest Yield! • No information overload! It’s bad for exam prep! • Focus on what’s frequently tested • Know the NCLEX test plan and which categories are tested most • Repeat, Rephrase and retain! An Archer approach with 99% pass rate!
  4. 4. Isolation Precautions
  5. 5. Standard ● Perform hand hygiene ● Use PPE if you expect to be exposed to bodily fluids ● Disinfect patient equipment ● Follow safe injection practices ○ 1 needle, 1 syringe, 1 time
  6. 6. Contact ● PPE to wear: ○ Gown ○ Gloves ● Patient dedicated equipment ○ Disposable stethoscope ○ BP cuff ○ Thermometer ● Limit transport of patient ● Appropriate patient placement ○ Single patient room ○ Same infections grouped together ● Infections requiring contact precautions: ○ MRSA ○ VRE ○ Diarrheal illnesses ● Special Enteric** ○ C. diff ○ Must wash hands instead of using sanitizer.
  7. 7. Droplet ● PPE to wear: ○ Mask ○ Eye cover ■ Goggles or face shield ● Limit transport of patient ○ When transporting, place mask on patient. ○ Teach patient to cough into elbow ● Appropriate patient placement ○ Single patient room ○ Same infections grouped together ● Infections requiring droplet precautions: ○ Influenza ○ Pertussis ○ Mumps ○ RSV ○ Rhinovirus ○ Meningitis
  8. 8. Airborne ● PPE to wear: ○ Respirator ■ N95 or PAPR ○ Gown ○ Gloves ● Airborne isolation room ○ Negative pressure when possible ○ Private room ● Appropriate healthcare personnel ○ Restrict susceptible personnel from entering room. ○ Limit number of people needed to enter room. ● Limit transport of patient ○ Put mask on patient if they must leave the room. ● Infections requiring airborne precautions: ○ Tuberculosis ○ Measles ○ Chickenpox ○ Disseminated herpes zoster
  9. 9. NCLEX Question You are working in an ICU caring for a 62 year old male who was prescribed vancomycin for an infection. He develops persistent, watery diarrhea. Which of the following precautions do you take? Select all that apply. A. Sanitize your hands before and after entering the room B. Place the patient is a negative pressure room C. Wear an N95 and face shield when entering the room. D. Use single use equipment and leave it inside of the room
  10. 10. Answer: D A is incorrect. The nurse should suspect C. diff in the patient that develops watery diarrhea after an antibiotic course. Sanitizing your hands before and after entering the room will not kill the C. diff spores. The nurse will need to wash her hands with soap and water. B is incorrect. Placing the patient is a negative pressure room is not necessary. The nurse suspects C. diff, which requires special enteric precautions. A negative pressure room is indicated for airborne precautions. C is incorrect. Wear an N95 and face shield when entering the room. is not necessary. The nurse suspects C. diff, which requires special enteric precautions. A N95 and face shield is indicated for airborne precautions. D is correct. Using single use equipment and leaving it inside of the room is important for special enteric precautions. The nurse should take this precaution.
  11. 11. Restraints
  12. 12. When is it appropriate to use restraints? ● Is your patient a danger to themselves or others? ○ Patient trying to harm themself ○ Combative patient trying to harm team members ● Are they trying to pull out their IVs or airway? ● Delirious patients ○ Don’t know where they are ○ Are afraid and at risk for harming themself Always, always, ALWAYS remove the restraints as soon as possible! Use other methods when appropriate - redirection, orientation, sedation as ordered.
  13. 13. Different types of restraints Soft wrist restraint Mitts
  14. 14. Different types of restraints Posey bed Vest
  15. 15. Document, document, document! What MUST be documented when you have a patient in restraints: ● Start and stop times ● Reason restraints are indicated ● Plan of care ● Assessment ○ ESPECIALLY important to check for skin breakdown ○ Look at skin under all restraints, note any redness, and use preventative measures to protect skin.
  16. 16. NCLEX Question Which of the following situations represents an appropriate time to place your patient in restraints? Select all that apply. a. When they are trying to pull at their lines, tubes, and drains. b. When their family member asks you to. c. When you feel it is necessary. d. When they are a danger to themselves.
  17. 17. Answer: A and D A is correct. It is appropriate to place your patient in restraints, with an order from your healthcare provider, if the patient is trying to pull out their lines, tubes, and drains. This makes them a danger to themselves and can cause harm, so restraints may be appropriate. B is incorrect. A family member may request restraints, but this is not an appropriate reason to initiate restraints. You should explain to the family member other options and what you are trying to do for their loved one before initiating restraints. C is incorrect. Just because you feel that restraints are necessary does not mean you may initiate them. You must speak with your healthcare provider and explain why you think restraints are necessary to obtain an order. D is correct. If your patient is a danger to themselves, and other interventions are not keeping them safe, it is appropriate to request an order for restraints from your healthcare provider. NCSBN Client Need: Topic: Effective, safe care environment Subtopic: Coordinated care Reference: DeWit, S. C., Stromberg, H., & Dallred, C. (2016). Medical-surgical nursing: Concepts & practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Subject: Fundamentals Lesson: Safety
  18. 18. CPR
  19. 19. Unconscious patient 1. Try to wake the patient, yell and shake them. a. Sternal rub 2. Check their pulse a. Adult - carotid; infant - brachial b. NO LONGER than 10 seconds 3. Press the code bell & yell for help
  20. 20. Patient has no pulse 1. Start chest compressions a. 100-120 beats/min b. Depth: 2 inches c. Allow full chest recoil 2. Have someone get the crash cart
  21. 21. CPR Cycles ● 30 compressions: 2 breaths ● 2 minutes ● At 2 minute mark; check rhythm and pulse ● If patient still pulseles, switch compressors and resume compression ● NEVER stop compressions for more than 10 seconds.
  22. 22. Shock ● Allow AED to analyze rhythm ● Follow prompts ● If ‘shock advised’, resume compressions while device charge ● Clear patient when AED advises ● Ensure patient completely clear, and deliver shock ● IMMEDIATELY resume compressions
  23. 23. Infant CPR ● 2 rescuers: compression to breath ratio is 15:2 ● Use two fingers for compressions ● Compress to a depth of ⅓ the AP diameter
  24. 24. NCLEX Question You arrive at the bedside of a 51 year old patient who was found unconscious, CPR is in progress. Which of the following actions if observed would require you to intervene? Select all that apply. A. Providing 15 compressions for every 2 breaths B. Providing compressions with two fingers C. Allowing for full chest recoil. D. Checking for a pulse for 10 seconds.
  25. 25. Answer: A & B A is correct. In a 51 year old patient, it would not be appropriate to provide compressions and breaths in a 15:2 ratio. This is the correct ratio for infant CPR. B is correct. Providing compressions with two fingers is not appropriate in an adult patient. The nurse should use both hands to compress to a depth of 2 inches. The 2 finger technique is appropriate only in infant CPR. C is incorrect. Allowing for full chest recoil is an appropriate action. No intervention is needed. D is incorrect. Checking for a pulse for 10 seconds is an appropriate action. No intervention is needed.
  26. 26. Fire Safety
  27. 27. Fire Prevention ● Always check your equipment at the beginning of your shift ● Keep electrical equipment away from water ● Never block doors in case of fire ● Know where the emergency shut off for oxygen is ○ Oxygen is flammable! ○ NO SMOKING!!!
  28. 28. If there is a fire: RACE ● R - Rescue ● A - Activate ● C - Contain ● E - Extinguish
  29. 29. To use a fire extinguisher: PASS ● P - Pull pin ● A - Aim ● S - Squeeze ● S - Sweep
  30. 30. NCLEX Question A nurse is working on a busy medical surgical unit when a fire breaks out in the trash can in a patient’s room. What is her priority nursing action? A. Pull the fire alarm B. Remove the patient from the room C. Contain the fire D. Get the fire extinguisher
  31. 31. Answer: B To determine your priority nursing action in the event of a fire, use the acronym RACE: rescue, activate, contain, and extinguish. Of the choices offered, removing (rescuing) the patient from the room is the priority. Remember, the NCLEX is a public safety test. If there is an action YOU can take to keep your patient SAFE, that’s the correct answer!!
  32. 32. Break!Back at...
  33. 33. Radiation
  34. 34. Reduce Exposure ● When possible, keep your distance ● Never touch an implanted radiation device ● Minimize the time spent in the room ○ Cluster care ● Minimize the staff going into the room
  35. 35. Personal Protective Equipment ● Double gloves ● Goggles ● Shoe covers ● N95 or higher level respirator ● Dosimeter ○ Device worn by staff to measure their exposure ○ Can indicate when staff members have reached the limit and should be re-assigned
  36. 36. Patient Care ● Immediately discard any bodily fluids in hazardous waste ○ Urinal ○ Waste from blood draw ○ Towels used to clean up fluids ● Cluster care ● Leave trash and linen in the room for proper disposal
  37. 37. NCLEX Question The nurse is caring for a patient with an implanted radiation device to deliver internal radiation. Which of the following precautions should she take to keep herself and others safe? Select all that apply. A. Keep the patient in a single room B. Dispose of the patients trash in a medical waste bin C. Place a sign on the door with the patient's diagnosis and treatment plan D. Wear a dosimeter to track radiation exposure
  38. 38. Answer: A and D A is correct. Keeping the patient in a single room will prevent other patients from unnecessary radiation exposure. B is incorrect. Radiation waste requires special handling. Disposing of the patients trash in a medical waste bin would pose a danger to staff. Medical waste includes things like paper, tissues, used utensil, and other non hazardous waste. C is incorrect. It is not appropriate to place a sign on the door with the patient's diagnosis and treatment plan. This would violate HIPPA. Istead, the nurse should place a caution sign on the door warning of radiation, but without the patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. D is correct. Wearing a dosimeter to track radiation exposure is an appropriate safety measure to ensure there is not excessive exposure to any one staff member.
  39. 39. Waste
  40. 40. Medical waste ● Any non-hazardous trash ● Paper ● Leftover food ● Used utensils ● Tissues ● No special requirements for disposal ● Use regular trash can
  41. 41. Infectious waste ● Medical waste that is or COULD be infectious ● Used sharps ● Bodily fluids ● Swabs ● Wound dressings ● Dispose per facility protocol ○ Sharps container
  42. 42. Hazardous waste ● Waste that poses a potential danger to staff ● Not necessarily infectious ● Clean sharps ● Hazardous medications ○ Chemo ○ ‘Blue bin drugs’ ● Dispose per facility protocol ○ Blue bin
  43. 43. Radioactive waste ● Anything involved with radiation ○ Medications ○ Implants ○ Tubing ○ Syringes ○ Bodily fluids ○ Towels ○ PPE used while caring for the patient ● Certified team members dispose of waste ● Special containers
  44. 44. NCLEX Question The nurse just administered IM toradol to a 15 year old female. What is the correct way for her to dispose of the needle? A. Cap the needle and place it in the sharps container. B. Place the needle in a biohazard bag C. Place the uncapped needle in the sharps container immediately D. Cap the needle and dispose of it in the regular trash.
  45. 45. Answer: C A is incorrect: Capping the needle and placing it in the sharps container is not appropriate. Needles should never be recapped due to the increased risk of injury to staff. B is incorrect: Used sharps should not be placed in a biohazard bag. This is unsafe and improper disposal of potentially infectious waste. C is correct: It is appropriate to place the uncapped needle in the sharps container immediately. Not recapping the needle decreases risk of a needlestick injury, and the sharps container is an appropriate location for potentially infectious waste such as used sharps. D is incorrect: It is not appropriate to either cap the needle or dispose of it in the regular trash.
  46. 46. Fall Prevention
  47. 47. Fall risk ● Geriatric patients ● LOC ● Altered mental status ● Equipment cluttering room
  48. 48. Fall prevention ● Ensure call light is in reach ● Remove unnecessary equipment ● Fall socks ○ Yellow ○ Non-slip ● Bed alarm ● Ensure room is well lit ● Offer help to bathroom frequently ● ‘Call don’t fall’
  49. 49. Fall bundle ● Yellow is the universal ‘Fall Risk’ color ● Yellow socks ● Yellow wristband ● Yellow sign on door
  50. 50. Door sign
  51. 51. Assistive devices to prevent falls ● Walker ● Cane ● Wheelchair ● Crutches
  52. 52. Walker ● Stand in the center of the walker ● Slide walker forward 6-8 inches ● Keep all 4 feet of walker on ground ● Step forward with affected side ○ Keep weight on the walker and unaffected leg ● Bring unaffected leg up to walker
  53. 53. Crutches: Fit ● Don’t rest on armpits ● Use shoulders and arms for strength ● Slight bend through the elbows
  54. 54. Three-Point Gait ● For partial weight bearing ● Crutches are advanced with the affected leg ● Unaffected leg brought forward
  55. 55. Swing-Through Gait ● For non-weight bearing patients ● Stand on the unaffected leg ● Move both crutches forward about a foot ● Brace the hand grips for support ● Swing both legs through the crutches
  56. 56. Crutches up the stairs
  57. 57. Crutches down the stairs
  58. 58. Cane ● Cane goes on the unaffected side ● Slight bend at the elbow ● Cane moves forward 6-10 inches ● Affected leg moves forward with cane ● Unaffected leg then moves past the cane
  59. 59. NCLEX Question You are the bedside nurse on a medical surgical floor caring for each of the following patients. In which order would the nurse categorize their fall risk from greatest to least risk? A. 25 year old female with a broken hand B. 87 year old male, history of fall, Parkinson’s disease C. 45 year old male taking acetaminophen for abdominal pain D. 52 year old female, blind, post op day 1
  60. 60. Answer: B, D, C, A The patient with the highest fall risk is B: 87 year old male, history of fall, Parkinson’s disease. This patient has a total of 3 risk factors: age, history of fall, and balance issues due to parkinson’s disease. The patient with the second highest fall risk is D: 52 year old female, blind, post op day 1. This patient has a total of 2 risk factors: visual impairment and recent surgery. The patient with the third highest fall risk is C: 45 year old male taking morphine for abdominal pain. This patient has a total of 1 risk factor: opioid pain medication. The patient with the least fall risk is A: 25 year old female with a broken hand. This patient has no risk factors.
  61. 61. Wrap up questions
  62. 62. NCLEX Question A nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis. Which of the following isolations precautions should the nurse initiate? A. Droplet B. Contact C. Airborne D. Special enteric
  63. 63. Answer: A Meningococcal meningitis is a type of bacterial infection in the brain and spinal cord. It is very dangerous and highly contagious. The nurse will need to implement droplet precautions immediately to prevent transmission of the meningococcal meningitis.
  64. 64. NCLEX Question While working in the emergency department, a fire breaks out in the waiting room. The charge nurse tells you to get the fire extinguisher. Place the following steps in order for correctly using the fire extinguisher. A. Aim the fire extinguisher B. Sweep the area of the fire C. Pull the pin D. Squeeze the handle
  65. 65. Answer: C, A, D, B To remember how to use a fire extinguisher, use the acronym PASS: first pull the pin, next aim the fire extinguisher at the fire, next squeeze the handle to start dispensing the contents of the fire extinguisher, and last sweep the nozzle over the area of the fire to completely extinguish the fire.
  66. 66. NCLEX Question An 82 year old female lives in an assisted living facility and using a cane to ambulate independently. Which of the following observations would require intervention? Select all that apply. A. Holding the cane on the unaffected side B. Elbows are straight C. Moves her affected leg forward with cane D. Moves her unaffected leg forward with the cane
  67. 67. Answer: B and D A is incorrect. Holding the cane on the unaffected side is an appropriate action and does not require intervention. B is correct. The elbows should not be straight, but should have a slight bend in them. C is incorrect. Moving her affected leg forward with the cane is an appropriate action and does not require intervention. D is correct. Moving her unaffected leg forward with the cane is not correct and requires intervention. She should be moving her affected, or weak, leg forward with the cane.
  68. 68. Thank you for joining our Crash Course! Upcoming Archer Review Courses: ● Test Strategies, Prioritization, & Delegation ○ Jan. 5th 2-4 CST ● Mental Health ○ Jan. 7th 12-2 CST ● Fundamentals ○ Jan 15th 2-5 CST ● FULL RAPID PREP REVIEW ○ JAN. 21st & 22nd ○ 8am-6pm CST

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Crutch on affected side
    Put weight on crutch and handrail and move unaffected leg up a stair
    Use unaffected leg to bring affected leg and crutch up to the step
  • Use railing and 1 crutch
    Crutch on unaffected side
    Affected leg and crutch move down
    Bring unaffected leg to meet affected leg and crutch

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