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A
Visual History
Of
Modern Art
composed by

Victoria Lief Bertotti
Teachers College, Columbia university
December 2013

Th...
We are in an age
referred to by many as
POSTMODERNITY.
Postmodernity,
according to some,
has already replaced
MODERNITY.

...
The Age of Modernity
is the epoch
that began
with
the age of
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
about
1687 to 1789.

Thursday, December 12,...
MODERNISM emerged from
the age of
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
and
at the founding of
a new nation called The
UNITED STATES OF AMERIC...
Thursday, December 12, 13
PRE-MODERNIST
Jacques Louis David
painted scenes
from the
FRENCH REVOLUTION.

Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
MODERNISM
also emerged amidst
the social & political revolution
sweeping all of
Western Europe
&
its many cultures.

Thurs...
Thursday, December 12, 13
PRE-MODERNIST
Francisco de Goya
depicted
Napoleon's
invasion of Spain.

Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
In 1770,
Immanuel Kant
laid the philosophic foundation for
ARTISTIC MODERNISM
&
for the formalism
of the 1930’s.

Thursday...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Artistic modernism
is more recent than
philosophical modernity.
ARTISTIC MODERNISM
began between
the middle and the end of...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Modernists
signified their allegiance
to the new
by referring to themselves as
"AVANTE GARDE"
thinking they were
ahead of ...
Thursday, December 12, 13
others modernists,
such as
THE CONSTRUCTIVISTS
in the Soviet Union,
embraced influences of
scientific modes of thinking.

...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Some modernists,
such as
THE FUTURISTS
during the 1920s,
celebrated new technology
in their work,
especially the quality
o...
Thursday, December 12, 13
during the early1900’s
THE FUTURISTS
in Italy & France
originated important
Modernist classic works.

Thursday, December 1...
Thursday, December 12, 13
In the 1920s,
the theory of modernism
received a big boost from British critics.
Clive Bell & Roger Fry
introduced
FORMALI...
1
Thursday, December 12, 13
During the 1930s,
in the area of literary criticism,
T. S. Eliot
and other writers
developed "New Criticism."
This became
...
Thursday, December 12, 13
After
World War II,
MODERNIST FORMALISM
became extremely important in
the United States.

Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
Clement Greenberg
became the most influential
American critic
of the 20th century.
“Greenberg pushed the position that the...
1
Thursday, December 12, 13
With the backing of
Clement Greenberg
And fellow critic
Harold Rosenberg
abstract expressionists,
color-field painters & h...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
the FORMALIST PRINCIPLE
defined painting as
two-dimensional by nature
and it ought not attempt
three - dimensional illusio...
Thursday, December 12, 13
During the 1960’s,
art critic Michael Fried
wrote extensively on formalism,
concentrating especially on
MINIMALIST SCULPTU...
1
Thursday, December 12, 13
However,
as social forces
in the 1960’s
sought to obliterate
social boundaries,
so too did art movements
erase aesthetic b...
Criticism of modernism
and its slogan of
“ART FOR ART’S SAKE"
pushed toward minimal abstraction.
Tom Wolfe
attempted to di...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Arthur Danto
credits Warhol with bringing about
"THE END OF ART."
Danto
refers Warhol’s “the end of art” as
the end of
MOD...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
Many others agree
that the history of modernism
is a history of "erasures."
MODERNIST ARTISTS
took apart the foundations
o...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Arthur Danto
specifically credits
‘THE BRILLO BOX’
with the end of modernism.
Andy Warhol
made the "philosophical" stateme...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
Other critics, notably
Douglas Crimp
write a different history of modernism,
arguing that its demise
was brought about
by ...
Thursday, December 12, 13
The significance of
the reproducibility of artworks
by photographic means
was originally noted by
Walter Benjamin
in the 1...
Thursday, December 12, 13
In
POSTMODERNIST
terms,
Danto's and other writers'
renditions of
MODERNISM
are thought of as
"stories."

Thursday, Decembe...
Thursday, December 12, 13
Thursday, December 12, 13
We might have inherited
a very different
history of art than
MODERNISM
(others are currently being written).
But we didn't...
What we inherited was
MODERNISM
as a very influential and limited,
explanation of
the art of
the past century.

Thursday, ...
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A Visual History of Modern Art

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This is a survey of the history of Modern Art from its inception at the time of the Enlightenment to the present. The big ideas that have driven the movement are presented along with the people who originated core ideas and major artists as well. This presentation is also complimented by another presentation called "Art and Theory of Aesthetics." Both are worthy of class presentation and discussion.

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A Visual History of Modern Art

  1. 1. A Visual History Of Modern Art composed by Victoria Lief Bertotti Teachers College, Columbia university December 2013 Thursday, December 12, 13
  2. 2. We are in an age referred to by many as POSTMODERNITY. Postmodernity, according to some, has already replaced MODERNITY. Thursday, December 12, 13
  3. 3. The Age of Modernity is the epoch that began with the age of THE ENLIGHTENMENT about 1687 to 1789. Thursday, December 12, 13
  4. 4. MODERNISM emerged from the age of THE ENLIGHTENMENT and at the founding of a new nation called The UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Thursday, December 12, 13
  5. 5. Thursday, December 12, 13
  6. 6. PRE-MODERNIST Jacques Louis David painted scenes from the FRENCH REVOLUTION. Thursday, December 12, 13
  7. 7. Thursday, December 12, 13
  8. 8. MODERNISM also emerged amidst the social & political revolution sweeping all of Western Europe & its many cultures. Thursday, December 12, 13
  9. 9. Thursday, December 12, 13
  10. 10. PRE-MODERNIST Francisco de Goya depicted Napoleon's invasion of Spain. Thursday, December 12, 13
  11. 11. Thursday, December 12, 13
  12. 12. In 1770, Immanuel Kant laid the philosophic foundation for ARTISTIC MODERNISM & for the formalism of the 1930’s. Thursday, December 12, 13
  13. 13. Thursday, December 12, 13
  14. 14. Artistic modernism is more recent than philosophical modernity. ARTISTIC MODERNISM began between the middle and the end of the nineteenth century. Thursday, December 12, 13
  15. 15. Thursday, December 12, 13
  16. 16. Modernists signified their allegiance to the new by referring to themselves as "AVANTE GARDE" thinking they were ahead of their time and beyond historical limitations. Thursday, December 12, 13
  17. 17. Thursday, December 12, 13
  18. 18. others modernists, such as THE CONSTRUCTIVISTS in the Soviet Union, embraced influences of scientific modes of thinking. Thursday, December 12, 13
  19. 19. Thursday, December 12, 13
  20. 20. Some modernists, such as THE FUTURISTS during the 1920s, celebrated new technology in their work, especially the quality of speed. Thursday, December 12, 13
  21. 21. Thursday, December 12, 13
  22. 22. during the early1900’s THE FUTURISTS in Italy & France originated important Modernist classic works. Thursday, December 12, 13
  23. 23. Thursday, December 12, 13
  24. 24. In the 1920s, the theory of modernism received a big boost from British critics. Clive Bell & Roger Fry introduced FORMALISM. Formalism & modernism are inextricably linked. Thursday, December 12, 13
  25. 25. 1 Thursday, December 12, 13
  26. 26. During the 1930s, in the area of literary criticism, T. S. Eliot and other writers developed "New Criticism." This became a formalist approach to literature that paralleled formalism in art. Thursday, December 12, 13
  27. 27. Thursday, December 12, 13
  28. 28. After World War II, MODERNIST FORMALISM became extremely important in the United States. Thursday, December 12, 13
  29. 29. Thursday, December 12, 13
  30. 30. Clement Greenberg became the most influential American critic of the 20th century. “Greenberg pushed the position that the best avant-garde artists were emerging in America rather than Europe. ... In the 1955 essay "American-Type Painting" Greenberg promoted the work of Abstract Expressionists, among them Jackson Pollock, [and] Willem de Kooning, ... as the next stage in Modernist art, arguing that these painters were moving towards greater emphasis on the 'flatness' of the picture plane.” -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clement_Greenberg Thursday, December 12, 13
  31. 31. 1 Thursday, December 12, 13
  32. 32. With the backing of Clement Greenberg And fellow critic Harold Rosenberg abstract expressionists, color-field painters & hardedge abstractionists flattened their paintings. Thursday, December 12, 13
  33. 33. Thursday, December 12, 13
  34. 34. Thursday, December 12, 13
  35. 35. the FORMALIST PRINCIPLE defined painting as two-dimensional by nature and it ought not attempt three - dimensional illusions. “At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event.” — Harold Rosenberg Thursday, December 12, 13
  36. 36. Thursday, December 12, 13
  37. 37. During the 1960’s, art critic Michael Fried wrote extensively on formalism, concentrating especially on MINIMALIST SCULPTURES. Thursday, December 12, 13
  38. 38. 1 Thursday, December 12, 13
  39. 39. However, as social forces in the 1960’s sought to obliterate social boundaries, so too did art movements erase aesthetic boundaries. Thursday, December 12, 13
  40. 40. Criticism of modernism and its slogan of “ART FOR ART’S SAKE" pushed toward minimal abstraction. Tom Wolfe attempted to discredit Greenberg & Rosenberg and their abstract and minimalist movements. Thursday, December 12, 13
  41. 41. Thursday, December 12, 13
  42. 42. Arthur Danto credits Warhol with bringing about "THE END OF ART." Danto refers Warhol’s “the end of art” as the end of MODERNISM. Thursday, December 12, 13
  43. 43. Thursday, December 12, 13
  44. 44. Thursday, December 12, 13
  45. 45. Many others agree that the history of modernism is a history of "erasures." MODERNIST ARTISTS took apart the foundations of all that was special in previous art making. Thursday, December 12, 13
  46. 46. Thursday, December 12, 13
  47. 47. Arthur Danto specifically credits ‘THE BRILLO BOX’ with the end of modernism. Andy Warhol made the "philosophical" statement: ‘one could no longer tell the difference between an ordinary object and an art object just by looking at it.’ Thursday, December 12, 13
  48. 48. Thursday, December 12, 13
  49. 49. Thursday, December 12, 13
  50. 50. Other critics, notably Douglas Crimp write a different history of modernism, arguing that its demise was brought about by the INVENTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Thursday, December 12, 13
  51. 51. Thursday, December 12, 13
  52. 52. The significance of the reproducibility of artworks by photographic means was originally noted by Walter Benjamin in the 1930’s. Thursday, December 12, 13
  53. 53. Thursday, December 12, 13
  54. 54. In POSTMODERNIST terms, Danto's and other writers' renditions of MODERNISM are thought of as "stories." Thursday, December 12, 13
  55. 55. Thursday, December 12, 13
  56. 56. Thursday, December 12, 13
  57. 57. We might have inherited a very different history of art than MODERNISM (others are currently being written). But we didn't. Thursday, December 12, 13
  58. 58. What we inherited was MODERNISM as a very influential and limited, explanation of the art of the past century. Thursday, December 12, 13

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