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Internal Migration, Settlement and Deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon

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Presented by Peter Cronkleton on Dec 2nd, 2018 at Global Landscapes Forum, Bonn

Publié dans : Environnement
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Internal Migration, Settlement and Deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon

  1. 1. Internal Migration, Settlement and Deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon Global Landscape Forum Connecting for impact: From commitment to action Bonn, Germany December 2, 2018
  2. 2. • Examine internal migration and the SDGs • In particular, SDG-15: Life on Land “Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss” • Draw examples for research in the Peruvian Amazon ▪ Discuss migration patterns observed ▪ Examine associated patterns of land use change ▪ Reflect on policy implications of observed patterns Setting the stage
  3. 3. Migration and Peru’s Forest Frontiers  Migration seen as key driver of deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon  Lack of systematic information about migration, the characteristics of migrants or the actual effects of migration on forests  Underlying narrative emphasizes population shift by Andean peoples from highlands to forested lowlands  Weak foundation for policy action or strategy
  4. 4. Research Sites Tournavista Abujao Neshuya Pisqui  Neshuya landscape, formerly production forest occupied in the 1980s  Abujao landscape, traditional floodplain settlements  Tournavista landscape, older frontier with overlapping property claims  Pisqui landscape, indigenous communities
  5. 5. Migration Indicators in Peru • Birthplace (whether individual had been born at location when counted during the census) • Recent migrants (whether the individual had lived at a different location 5 years earlier) Where were the migrants in our sample?
  6. 6. Migration Indicators Birthplace by province Distribution in landscapes 71% 29% All Informants Migrantes Non-Migrantes 69% 31% ABUJAO 98% 2% NESHUYA 16% 84% PISQUI 89% 11% TOURNAVISTA
  7. 7. Migration Indicators Recent Migrants Distribution in landscapes 38% 62% ABUJAO 24% 76% NESHUYA 5% 95% PISQUI 11% 89% TOURNAVISTA 18% 82% All Informants Recent Migrants Non-Migrantes
  8. 8. Migration Indicators Birthplace by village Distribution in landscapes 84% 16% All Informants Migrantes Non-Migrantes 96% 4% ABUJAO 100% 0% NESHUYA 43% 57% PISQUI 96% 4% TOURNAVISTA
  9. 9. Migration Indicators Region of Birth Distribution of ‘Amazonians’ varied 4% 18% 78% Abujao 15% 36% 49% Neshuya 4% 55% 41% Tournavista 100% Pisqui 7% 29% 64% All Informants Coast Highlands Amazon
  10. 10. High Mobility Mobility and Settlement Stable Settlements • Most villages settled in 1970 or 1980 • Informants averaged 19 years in current village • Migrants had lived 23 years in the Amazon on average
  11. 11. 1985199520052015 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Porcentaje Neshuya 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Tournavista 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Porcentaje Abujao 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Pisqui Change in Mature Forest Cover (1985-2015)
  12. 12. 1985199520052015 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Porcentaje Neshuya 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Tournavista 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Porcentaje Abujao 0 20 40 60 80 100 1985 1995 2005 2015 Pisqui Change in agricultural land use (1985-2015)
  13. 13. Occupation through spontaneous settlement • Forest lands targeted for occupation because seen as unused • Residents demarcated properties on their own in collaboration with neighbors • Gradually, as settlements coalesced, state agencies provided services and infrastructure • Later the State formalized property claims • However, tendency to only title deforested areas PHOTO Migration Patterns and Settlement
  14. 14. Migration drivers reported o Search for arable land o Search for economic opportunity (wage labor) o Search for public services o Forced migration (terrorism, violence, and natural disasters) Migration patterns and outcomes strongly influenced by national and regional governance dynamics Link between migration patterns and deforestation were complex – however infrastructural improvement closely associated with forest conversion PHOTO Migration Patterns and Settlement
  15. 15. Conclusions Promotion of sustainable land use and forest management should reflect better understanding of patterns and impacts of demographic change on forest frontiers • Effective policy actions and strategies require better understanding of o How existing policy framework create current context o How agendas and actions of different agencies compete or conflict o How competing policies undermine broader governmental goals or led to unintended consequences • Need to identify shared agendas to increase collaboration and balance tradeoffs • Patterns of internal migration observed in Peru expose complexity of processes and the need for timely evidence for decision support
  16. 16. cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org Thank You

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