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Tenure security and Forest Landscape Restoration in Boeny, Madagascar

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Presented by Rebecca McLain and Patrick Ranjatsonon on March 26, 2019 at World Bank 2019 Land and Poverty Conference, Washington, D.C.

Publié dans : Environnement
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Tenure security and Forest Landscape Restoration in Boeny, Madagascar

  1. 1. cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org Tenure security and Forest Landscape Restoration in Boeny, Madagascar Rebecca McLain1, Patrick Ranjatson2, Jean Mananga3, Ny Tolotra Razafimbelo 2, Renaud Randrianasolo,2 Steven Lawry World Bank 2019 Land and Poverty Conference Washington DC CIFOR-ESSA-GIZ/Madagascar (ProPFR) 1CIFOR 2ESSA-Forêts 3Lawyer (Consultant)
  2. 2. . Madagascar’s engagement: 4 million ha of FLR BMZ : A World without Hunger GIZ’s ProPFR project in Boeny region, Madagascar The context : From Bonn Challenge to ProPFR Madagascar : towards FLR Main assumption : 1) FLR enhanced; 2) IF tenure security on lands improved
  3. 3. CIFOR-ESSA’s mission : Action research, what? 1) What tenure models need to be taken into account in order to successfully implement FLR? 2) How do tenure rights and tenure security affect motivations to invest in FLR ? 3) What reforms are needed to encourage broader participation in FLR 4) What is the relationship between tenure, food security, and FLR Objective – Develop conceptual tools that will enable improved understanding of the links between tenure and FLR investments
  4. 4. CIFOR-ESSA’s mission : Action research, how & when? 2 phases (Oct. 2018-Feb./March 2019) • Participatory mapping • Focus groups • Key informant interviews • Land administration statistics • Visits to fields, pastures, forests • Land use/modes of access to land • Rights to land and trees • Tenure conflicts • Areas where people are already doing restoration • Motivations for investing in restoration • Demand for and importance of land certificate
  5. 5. CIFOR-ESSA’s mission : Action research, where? ProPFR pilot sites Katsepy Mariarano Ambalakida Ankijabe • Two contrasting sites in: o Population density o Social homogeneity o Land use patterns o Demand for land o Access to infrastructure
  6. 6. - The marshland in Mariarano - The cahier telo in Ankijabe - Blending customs and statutory laws 6
  7. 7. The large « Alam-bondro » in Mariarano (more than 100ha marshland with bulrushes dominating) : In the recent past, common pool resource (fishing, bulrush harvesting, etc.) 7 Case study 1 : Marshland in Mariarano The alam-bondro (marshland), from common pool resource to individual paddy land
  8. 8. - Successive individual requests to cultivate - Since 2005, community’s written approval, - signed by the President of the fokontany AND with the red stamp; - Allowing users to claim individual land certificate - Tenure conflict leading to the Fokonolona decision to forbid landsales: 2019 8 Case study 1 : Marshland in Mariarano (cont.) Individual stakes, community decision and fokontany involvement
  9. 9. Notice to the chef secteur and fokontany Consultation with sojabe and adjacent owners Create the cahier telo Signatures of : Mayor, owner, and elders, including the President of fokontany The cahier telo is practiced in both Mariarano and Ankijabe 9 The “cahier telo”(three notebooks) system
  10. 10. Information about the land: - Type of land:… - Area:… - Adjacent landowners ( 4 cardinal points) and their signatures  North:…  South:…  West:…  East:… - Landowner’s signature - Signatures of the witnesses (elders) Raiamandreny (Sojabe) 10 The “cahier telo”(three notebooks) system (cont.)
  11. 11. Local legitimacy appears everywhere: - Community approval by the fokonolona via various social channels (elders, fokontany, Commune, etc.) - Local spatial location principles (avaratra, atsimo, andrefana, atsinanana vs North, South, East, West) The local tenure security models are a blend of statutory and customary rights: - Actors include local governments too; - Proceedures are inspired by statutory ones; - Tools involved are « petits papiers » and red stamps etc.; Models with local community legitimacy 11 KEY MESSAGES 1 & 2
  12. 12. The unequal and incomplete link between FLR and tenure security « Local » land sales Conflict resolution Conflict prevention Prestige Real pathway linking FLR and TS ProPFR pathway linking FLR and TS • Land interests and motivations are complex, FLR isn’t a priority; rather ultimate goals are: – Economic : land speculation – Social-political : resolution/prevention of land conflicts – Strategic-political : prestige Tenure SecurityFLR
  13. 13. • A Responsible Land Policy must recognize legitimate social rights TOO, beyond/instead of recognizing ONLY environmental and economic benefits: - Customs and statutory institutions do not work separately; - Nor is 100% recognition of customary institutions good for resource sustainability; - BUT the solution is a flexible enough statutory framework allowing for local adaptation, that will enable environmental, social and economic sustainability Models with local community legitimacy 13 KEY MESSAGE 3
  14. 14. • Raphia stands used to be common pool resources (fish, fibers, raphia fruits, housing materials, pasture, water etc); • But, attempts to expropriate by individuals are occurring; • Community claims its rights for fishing/harvesting/grazing; • Commune reaction: promise to include the raphia stands as a common pool resource: • Implementation of this measure would mean 1) compliance with both the laws and local practices, and 2) enhancement of biodiversity 14 Saving the raphia stands : recognizing it as a common resource in the communal management plan
  15. 15. • More empirical data, more grounded theory on hidden interests of restoration, esp. food security, social rights: • Conceptualization of the FOKONOLONA, as the comunity, in order to establish its legal status ; • Increasing awareness among the different actors at different scales for a more inclusive land policy Further steps for research and policy improvement