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  1. 1. OLD  SPOKES  HOME  &   BIKE  RECYCLE  VT   Interviews and Observations   Maddie  Bell,  Emily  Gutenstein,  Melissa   Thebarge,  and  Samuel  Fessman   Dugan  -­‐  Marketing  Research  
  2. 2. Table  of  Contents   • Body o Introduction o Methodology o Results § External interviews § Extended interview § Internal interviews § Extended interview § Observations o Limitations o Conclusions & recommendations • Appendix o Questions o Tables
  3. 3. Introduction   Champlain College’s Marketing Research class partnered with the Burlington Bike Project (BBP) to obtain useful data for the organization to incorporate in their stores. Underneath the BBP umbrella is Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. Together they make a completely non-profit unit that promotes bike knowledge and accessibility throughout Burlington. Old Spokes Home, which was previously a for-profit bike shop, was purchased by Bike Recycle VT in January 2015 to create this relationship. The two stores are interdependent. Old Spokes Home provides revenue to continue operating Bike Recycle VT. Bikes that are donated to Old Spokes Home either are resold in the attic, or sent to Bike Recycle VT to be repaired and cycled through their system. The two also work together to put on educational and promotional events. Christine Hill, the Community Outreach Director for the two organizations, identified the objective of the research to be discovering brand perceptions in customers and creating a brand positioning strategy to improve outreach and general knowledge of the BBP’s social mission. There is question on whether or not previous strategies have been effective enough. At the beginning of the project, the end goal was to increase bike donations. This was adjusted due to changing circumstances to increasing Old Spokes Home’s overall sales. Over the course of several weeks, we developed a methodology to accomplish these objectives and have implemented it with success in getting feedback that is useful for the BBP. This report will document that methodology, which utilized interviews and observation techniques, describe our results, and draw conclusions with recommendations for the BBP’s future.  
  4. 4. Methodology     We performed intercept interviews with customers in Old Spokes Home while they waited for repairs or after they had been helped by Old Spokes Homes’ employees. Internal Interviews: The team worked with the Community Outreach Director to develop an outline for the interviews that was conducted (see Appendix A). The objective was to keep the interviews as simple as possible so that customers did not lose too much time, but that they were also in-depth enough to gather both qualitative and quantifiable information. When the customers were approached, the interviews were recorded and transcribed at a later time to further analyze what respondents said. External Interviews: We performed interviews with employees at each organization as well, scheduling times to come in and sitting them down in a private room to speak with them one-on-one. The base questions (Appendix F) were used as a guide for the conversation, but due to the conversational nature of the interviews, were not strictly adhered to. We gathered six internal interviews in total. Following the collection of the interviews, employee responses were coded according along 3 scales. The first scale judged statements as either supporting customer knowledge about the merger or supporting customer confusion regarding it. An example of customer knowledge statements would be, “I feel like customers already have a good grasp on the organization,” while a customer confusion statement would be, “Customers seem to have the wrong idea about the merger. Some come in thinking that we’re owned by Local Motion.” The second scale judged statements as either promoting change within the groups, or promoting the status quo. An example of a change-oriented statement would be, “It’s great to be able to work with Bike Recycle, and we have seen a greater volume of donations since we became one,” while a status-quo-oriented statement would be, “We want customers to know that quality is going to stay the same. It’s basically business as usual here.” The third and final scale judged statements as either supporting the sharing of resources, or the segregation of resources. An example of a sharing statement would be, “Being able to share bike parts and mechanics is really helpful for both of us,” while a segregation statement would be, “We rely on profits from Old Spokes, so we don’t want to direct too many customers to Bike Recycle if we don’t have to.” This coding allowed us to gauge not only internal perceptions of the merger, but how they view their customers and their knowledge regarding it. Placing these perceptions against customer responses allows us to identify communication blocks and misconceptions.
  5. 5. Observation: We also spent a great deal of time observing customers and the way that they interacted with the store. We wanted to see where they were looking, what they were shopping for and their interactions with the employees. We also spent time observing at Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. In addition to the observations made in the stores, we also looked closely at the organizations’ online presence. In the stores, we focused on the layout and employee interactions with customers. Online, we focused on how the branding translated digitally both from the store fronts and within each other.
  6. 6. Results   External Interviews When it comes to discovering how customers view the Old Spokes brand, external interviews were able to get several opinions from those customers. Below are the results: • Social mission knowledge and influence o What we found was striking. The results showed that 14 out of 15 times an interviewee responded that a social mission would positively affect their decision to shop at a store. The one respondent who did say that a social mission would have no impact also said that price and selection were the main motivators in his decision making process (see Appendix B). o On the other hand, very few had any knowledge of the social mission at Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. Out of the 24 times social mission was brought up, 13 times the customers were saying that they were not aware of Old Spokes Home/Bike Recycle VT’s social mission (see Appendix C). Only four times did customers say that they knew about the social mission and there were also customers who mentioned the museum, events and advocacy as a part of the social mission of Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. There was also one customer who was under the impression that they had become a co-op. • Price and selection o Six out of the eight mentions of price spoke to the reasonably priced goods and services of Old Spokes Home, while one believed that the prices were a bit high for the services being provided. o Selection was discussed five times and only once it was about a lack of selection, while the other four customers thought the selection was good. • Customer service and knowledge o 100% of the customers that discussed customer service said that they really like the service in the shop and that they liked that the employees took time with their customers and that they were always willing to discuss the options with their customers. o Four customers mentioned the knowledgeability of the staff. They believed that employees were experts and they had confidence in their abilities. One customers stressed the importance of the staff being well trained and knowledgeable.
  7. 7. • Location and overall feel of store o Everyone that mentioned the location of Old Spokes Home did so in a positive way and believed that the shop was in a great spot within the city for easy access when repairs and parts are needed. o Out of the people interviewed, 9 lived in Chittenden County, 2 outside of the county, and one was not from Vermont (See Appendix E). o The customers that mentioned the feel of the store did so in a positive light, with one customer mentioning that he liked it didn’t feel as though they were being rushed, which they had felt at other bike shops in the area. • Word of mouth and competition o There were two people that mentioned that they had heard about the merger of Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT in a Seven Days article while the three other mentioned that they had heard about it in passing. One customer mentioned that Old Spokes Home was “one of the first places people told me about” when they moved to Burlington. o Of the mentions of competition, three spoke directly about Ski Rack and the price difference between the two shops. The general consensus seemed to be that Old Spokes Home’s pricing was fair, but a biker could find more variety for less at places like Ski Rack. There was also a mention that Ski Rack carries lower end and less expensive bikes. Extended External Interview The following data was collected from an extended interview with Nic Anderson of Champlain College. Nic formerly lived in New Zealand and moved to Burlington for his work. At Champlain, he is the Sustainable Transportation Director and is a public supporter of increasing biking in the city. Under his direction, Champlain has been named one of 127 national institutions as a Silver Bicycle Friendly University. In addition to his advocacy for biking, he is also a frequent patron of Old Spokes Home and is passionate about its mission statement. • Social mission knowledge and influence o Nic seemed to have a fairly good understanding of Old Spokes Home’s and Bike Recycle VT’s social mission, but was still confused about the nonprofit and for- profit aspects and if that changed the business model at Bike Recycle or just at Old Spokes. o Nic also mentioned that the downstairs looks like a new bike shop and that might not help to convey their social mission to customers. • Price and selection o Although price was briefly discussed, it was clear that it was not a significant influencer of why Nic continued to patronize Old Spokes Home.
  8. 8. o Nic mentioned that Old Spokes Home has an edge in a rapidly growing market within the biking community, with their selection of bike-packing and touring products and that he would go directly to them without thinking twice about it. • Customer service and knowledge o Nic’s view is that customers who love Old Spokes keep coming back because Old Spoke’s loves bikes just as much as the customers do and that by advertising their interest in making biking accessible to everyone it would make their customers more loyal. o While Nic took one of their 8-week courses to learn how to do some of his own bike repairs, he says he still happily relies on the expertise of those in the shop when it comes to things that might be more difficult. • Location and overall feel of store o Nic believed that with Bike Recycle being in the basement and around the back of another building makes it hard to find and not overly welcoming. The location of Old Spokes is much more convenient for business, especially given the fact that they have a sign and Bike Recycle does not. One suggestion he made for the future was having a building that could be subdivided into the three different sections, one for Old Spokes, one for Bike Recycle and one for the museum. § Because this idea is most likely unattainable, it must be interpreted. The main motivation behind this suggestion is streamlining the brands to make them more visible and established. § Some ways to help clear confusion would be to increase signage and communication about the existence of the partnering stores. Informing customers that Bike Recycle VT is so close to Old Spokes Home might interest them into looking at more information, or even entering the other location. o While he likes the quaintness of Old Spokes Home, be thinks there needs to be more cross branding between the two stores so that as soon as you walk into one, you know they are affiliated with each other. • Word of mouth and competition o Nic discussed how he had learned about the classes offered through Bike Recycle on Facebook. o Nic mentioned that customers might choose Old Spokes over a place like Ski Rack because Old Spokes is directed specifically at bikers, whereas Ski Rack is directed towards many sports, like runners, skiers and bikers. He also mentions that Old Spokes has loyal customers because they are quirky and personal, whereas Ski Rack feels highly commercialized.
  9. 9. • Nic’s Suggestions for the Organization o Advertising/branding at both shops that make them look like the same shop and advertise the fact that they are one organization. o Bring the museum and used bikes to the front and put the higher-end stuff in its own spot, but not as the main focus. Or possible relocation of the stairs making them easier to access. o Signage pointing customers toward the used bikes and museum. More noticeable signage about Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. o One building for everything. Old Spokes, Bike Recycle, Museum. o Advertising Internal Interviews We conducted six internal interviews, ranging from approximately seven to twenty minutes. Four employees were from the Old Spokes Home, while two were from Bike Recycle Vermont. The base questions can be found in Appendix F. • Customer Knowledge o Most employees believe that the majority of customers are aware of a change in Old Spokes Home’s business model, but are unclear on what exactly has changed. The major issue identified by employees is that many customers are under the impression that Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle Vermont are owned by Local Motion, or are in business with SkiRack. o Another difficulty is the presence of three separate names. In measuring the employees’ focus on each group, mentions of “Old Spokes Home”, “Bike Recycle Vermont”, and “Burlington Bike Project” were tallied. We found a firm balance between the partner companies, with 21 mentions of Bike Recycle Vermont and 22 mentions of Old Spokes Home. The Burlington Bike Project was only mentioned four times throughout the interviews (Appendix G). o When asked about how well customers understood the relationship between Bike Recycle VT and Old Spokes Home, interviewees responded 10 times that customers had good knowledge and 9 times that customers were confused. • Change vs. Staying the same o Almost all employees embraced the change when it came to the sharing of resources and the nonprofit cause. When asked to give their ‘pitch’ to a customer curious about the new organization, employees used twice as many change- oriented statements as status-quo-oriented statements. o Old Spokes Home Employees were more focused on the status-quo, trying to emphasize that quality and brand personality were going to stay the same.
  10. 10. o Mechanics and volunteers at Bike Recycle [MD1] were much more focused on the changing aspects of the organization, and the benefits that come from sharing funds, resources, and manpower. o Total statements directly focused on the change totaled 11. o Total statements directly focused on staying the same totaled 9. o The distribution of statements indicated there is a great deal of trepidation regarding the changes in the business. This stems from concern that it will decrease customers’ perception of the quality and value of their bikes (Appendix H). • Sharing vs. Segmenting resources o The nonprofit’s mission was fully supported by all the interviewees. o The Old Spokes Home mechanics enjoy teaching at Bike Recycle, and most spoke highly of the ability to trade bikes between the two stores, as well as the access to more bike parts. o There was one area in which employees expressed a desire to segment resources, which was in the customer bases. Both interviewees at Bike Recycle noted that generally, there was little to gain in telling their clients (who generally come from a lower socioeconomic background) about the merger, as they had no reason to go to Old Spokes Home. o Furthermore, they noted that they relied on people shopping at Old Spokes, and that if too much traffic was directed from Bike Recycle Vermont to Old Spokes Home, they would lose a significant amount of funding. o Total statements focusing on sharing resources totaled 11. o Total statements focusing on segmenting resources totaled 3. o For the most part, the sharing of resources is supported and focused on, except for in customer bases. All statements on segregation of resources were in regard to keeping customer bases separate, in order to best serve their needs and generate profits (Appendix I). Extended Internal Interview The following findings came from an extended, twenty-five minute interview with Dan Hock. Dan is the manager at Bike Recycle Vermont, and his insight was particularly useful due to the fact that he has worked at both organizations, and has been around since before the two groups became one. • Customer Knowledge and Sharing of Resources o Dan noted that, in spreading customer knowledge, there were different messages to get across to different clientele. He explained that for “low income New Americans,” the focus of the conversation may be more on what Bike Recycle VT can offer them, whereas with a college student, it may be more on how they can volunteer their time.
  11. 11. o He noted a major problem in communication was establishing two related businesses that cater to the needs of two different demographics without saying, as Dan put it, “if you’re poor, you go to this shop, or if you’re affluent or able to spend money on a bicycle, you have to go to that one.” o Consistent information was not Dan’s primary concern, rather, relevant information was key. He said that volunteer mechanics get an extremely enriched version of the information, as they’re the ones who have proven that they are interested in the group and what they do. He claims that “we don’t go out of our way to associate [Bike Recycle VT and Old Spokes Home]. o Informing customers at Bike Recycle didn’t seem like a major priority, as Dan claimed, “We’re not trying to keep folks in the dark, but, financially, we’re not going to gain a ton by telling clients here that their money is part of this bigger thing.” o He claimed the focus should be in pushing this information at Old Spokes Home, with generally more affluent patrons who can contribute money and volunteer time. o Dan described the way they operate as “separate but equal,” and noted that customers have been displeased upon discovering, for example, that they don’t qualify for Bike Recycle’s services, and are directed to the Old Spokes Home. • Suggestions o Dan was particularly drawn to the idea of showing the connection of a bike being donated at Old Spokes and being sold at Bike Recycle. He talked about how he once tried it with a customer, whose bike ended up with a young boy from a low- income family. He expressed that being able to show the customer what became of her bike was immensely powerful, and that he would love to pick that idea back up to make the experience of donating more personal. o Dan touched on the difficulty of having three names. He had actually discussed how difficult having two names was until he was reminded of “Burlington Bike Project,” which he said proved his point. He said it was difficult enough to get one name to stick in a consumer’s mind, let alone three. o He also discussed wanting to utilize the new POS to set up an automated message on receipts thanking customers at Old Spokes Home for their contribution. He said this would be a way to convey the message to interested customers without being too aggressive.
  12. 12. Observations Old Spokes Home Observations Throughout our visits to the Old Spokes Home, our team took time to observe the store and the behavior of store employees and customers. Below are the most prominent things that we saw. • Two college students came into Old Spokes Home on October 23, 2015 looking for a seat cover. Christine was helping them and instead of having them spend money at the store, she suggested a free alternative to a seat cover and they did not buy anything. • A man came in on October 23, 2015 and he was looking for a fat bike, He had basic knowledge about bikes, but Christine helped him in finding a fat bike that would be right for him. Christine spent 10-15 minutes with him, but he didn’t buy a bike because of the price. He did compare prices on his phone. • The employees in general did not keep the customers waiting for help and bike maintenance. On average, customers were in the store for about ten minutes at a time. • There is little seating. There were a couple customers that stood around for longer periods of time. They spent a few minutes, maybe four, looking at the store, but after that, they looked a little bored. • One of the handouts underneath the nonprofit chalkboard mentioned Bike Recycle, but that was the only reference to it that we could find in the store. Besides that, it appeared to be a stand-alone non-profit. The chalkboard also does not really mention how the nonprofit operates. Online Observations The research team also looked at the online presence of Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. These are the observations that were made: • Blog for Old Spokes Home: Within the blog, there is no significant mention that it was purchased by Bike Recycle VT. There is a post from February 2015 that discusses the merger, but the video accompanying it does not work anymore and a person would have to dig through blog archives to find that post. • Old Spokes Website: There is a Donate tab on the far right of the link bar, however there is not much else to direct site visitors to that page. The line “a mission driven retail shop of Burlington Bike Project” is unclear. “Mission” could be taken to mean many things and may not be directly linked to the idea of social good or non-profit. The words “non- profit shop” are not present until a visitor gets to the Donate tab. • Bike Recycle Website: The link to Old Spokes Home discusses the purchase of Old Spokes Home in January 2015 and it does explain that Old Spokes supports Bike Recycle VT and touches on the mission statements between the two shops. Also the blog discusses the merger of the two organizations in detail but there is nothing of this sort on the Old Spokes Home website. • Facebook and Other Social Media Pages: The relationship between the two stores is not very clear on the social media pages. There is no link to Bike Recycle VT’s page or
  13. 13. website on the Old Spokes Home Facebook Page. The About section did not mention that the store is now a non-profit. Going back approximately three months of posts, there were no links to Bike Recycle VT or mentions in direct copy. Some posts were shared from the sister page, but it was not made clear that these are related organizations, rather than Old Spokes Home just sharing posts from a fellow bike enthusiast page. On the Bike Recycle VT page, the situation is very similar. There are no links to Old Spokes Home or direct mentions that the two are related in any posts. There are some posts that were shared from Old Spokes Home, but the relationship was not mentioned. o There is inconsistency with postings on social media and content updates. Sometimes it will be a long time before Old Spokes posts something new on their Facebook page. This has a negative effect on their potential audience penetration, as algorithms tend to suppress posters that do not consistently and frequently post content. Limitations   The largest obstacle was coordinating with the Community Outreach Director to set up times and approve the interview questions ahead of time. However, this improved later in the project. Midway through the project, the objectives of our research were adjusted. This set us back, as a good portion of the data we had collected was no longer applicable. At the beginning of the project, the goal was to determine how to increase bike donations overall. But a few weeks in, the objective shifted to raising overall sales at Old Spokes Home. Interviews conducted prior to the change did not cover this topic and became unhelpful data. The questions were rewritten to reflect the new focus. Another limitation to obtaining quality data was discovering the optimal times to visit the store. The first few times the research team went into Old Spokes Home, there was little to no traffic so the data collected was sparse at best. This improved as the team got better at predicting times for higher amounts of traffic. The actual situation for the intercept interviews was also difficult. Some interviewees were willing to speak with but were in a rush. Others may have not been completely comfortable being interviewed. Bias in interviewing, especially when in person, is always an issue. You have to consider the possibility that interviewees were responding in ways they believed we wanted them to. A question that would have greatly benefited the research was to ask where in Chittenden County interviewees resided. While it was discovered if they lived in the county, more specific locations would have helped us parse responses and attitudes about the location of Old Spokes Home easier. A limiting factor on the internal interviews is the low volume of interviews, primarily due to time constraints and scheduling conflicts. A longer timespan to study internal perceptions
  14. 14. would have allowed more interviews and created a more well-rounded report. On top of this, the fact that interviewees were employed at Old Spokes Home may have influenced responses, as they acted as representatives of the business. They may have withheld some opinions knowing that Christine would hear of the results, since they would not want to speak ill of their place of work to their boss. Data collection could have been assisted by further exploration of secondary sources. It is recommended that future researchers look closer at demographic information for Burlington residents. This should help give a broader picture to compare the data results with and identify potential correlations. Since the number of interviewees was small, it is hard to determine if the results reflect the Burlington population without demographic information. For example, finding out how many residents actively bike or shop at nonprofits would help fill in the holes in the current data. Future researchers would most likely benefit from this extra information.
  15. 15. Conclusion  and  Recommendations   After reviewing our data, we have come to the conclusion that Old Spokes Home does not have a strong image as a social mission-oriented business. Some people did not even realize that the store was a non-profit. When asked what they look for in bike shops, the top three motivators were price, selection, and good customer service. When it came to price, six out of eight customers who spoke about price thought that Old Spokes Home had reasonable prices. The remaining two thought that it was pricier than competition. When we did speak with people about competition such as Ski Rack and City Sports, interviewees tended to express that they enjoyed the non-commercial feel of the Old Spokes Home. They used words like “homey”. Although there were customers who were aware of Old Spokes Home being a non-profit, very few of them could provide any known details of the actual social mission statement of the organization. Because the data reflected that customers are influenced positively by an organization’s social mission, there could be a large amount of untapped customer loyalty here. This reveals an opportunity to be more effective when it comes to outreach efforts. One interviewee stated that he was “not really aware” of the social mission in the shop. There is enough evidence to suggest that there is a significant lack of knowledge about Old Spokes being a non-profit and how its relationship with Bike Recycle VT functions. We believe that this is a result of a lack of information presentation inside both stores, social media sites having little to no connection to each other, websites having different layouts and designs, and employees not offering up the information. When it came to employee interviews, the internal perceptions of customer knowledge and attitudes both corroborated and conflicted with the data gathered from the external interviews. Employees were correct in stating that there was a significant amount of confusion regarding the merging of Old Spokes Home and Bike Recycle VT. However, employees mostly noted how customers didn’t understand the structure of the organization, which is less important than the apparent lack of knowledge regarding the nonprofit status and the social mission. Employees overestimate customer knowledge, and a focus needs to be put back on the fundamentals of the merger. When it comes to the actual brand perception of Old Spokes Home, the data suggest that customers view the store as a community establishment. The community aspect is important and relates to the personal relationship customers feel with the store. As Mark Kay wrote in his article Strong Brands and Corporate Brands, “Strong brands become cultural symbols that are also related to a consumer's self-­‐identity” (Kay). This idea of customer self-identity is helped by the location, which is convenient for many people. As a result, Old Spokes Home is seen as a part of the local landscape and would be missed if it went away. Any time customer service was brought up, interviewees expressed positive feelings towards the employees and how they interact with customers. Old Spokes Home is seen as a
  16. 16. good place to go for quality parts and excellent service. There are differing views on how good the pricing of the goods and services is. Overall, Old Spokes has a positive brand image, but it is not necessarily related to its being a non-profit. Recommendations The objective of this project was to identify brand perceptions with the idea of increasing store sales at OSH. People have positive feelings about the store, but are not motivated by its social mission due to lack of knowledge. However, they did express that social missions influence whether or not they shop at a particular location. Below are the recommendations being made in order to capitalize on this attitude: • Increase signage in the Old Spokes Home storefront about the non-profit status and the relationship with Bike Recycle VT. The current blackboard is not noticeable enough and does not give enough information. • Maintain customer service levels and dedication to quality inventory. o This received high marks from returning customers. The brand has a good image as a respectful, but knowledgeable, community that any biker of any level can go to. o Including this in the store’s messaging helps create a brand image that store employees are going to do much more than just sell someone a bike. • Create an online identity that makes recognizing the two brands as one organization easier. Coordinating website designs and language used will increase retention of the social mission aspect of the BBP. o A singular brand name may be the most effective way to bring these two organizations together. It may alleviate the problem of customers being confused. o Consistent content is highly important. Integrated social media accounts with dependable content is a reliable way to build up followers and increase brand exposure. • Enable employees to speak up about the social mission by giving them talking points and materials to hand out with purchases. A message on receipts presenting the information would be an effective way to ensure the correct information is being given to customers.
  17. 17. Appendix  A:   1. How did you learn about Old Spokes Home? 2. Are you an avid biker? 3. How often do you shop at Old Spokes Home? 4. Are you from the area? 5. Do you know about their social mission? 6. What are the main reasons you shop at a particular bike store? 7. Is there a local non-profit that you support? If so, how do you show your support? 8. How would you describe the relationship between Old Spokes and Bike Recycle VT? 9. Does knowing that Old Spokes Home has a social mission affect your decision to shop there? 10. Are there things you wish people at the Old Spokes Home told you about the organization and its social mission? Appendix  B:   1. What is your ‘pitch’ to a customer who is curious about about learning more about the new organization? 2. Would you say most customers understand the organization of the two groups? 3. Has your job changed since Bike Recycle Vermont bought Old Spokes Home? 4. What is done in the store to increase awareness about the organization of the two groups? 5. Do you experience any difficulty while communicating the nature of the new organization? 6. What ideas do you have to make communicating about the organization easier for you, and easier for customers to understand?              
  18. 18. Appendix  C:     Appendix  D:   0   2   4   6   8   10   12   14   16   Yes   No   Would  a  social  mission  influence  you?   0   2   4   6   8   10   12   14   Yes   No   Some   Do  you  know  about  the  social  mission?  
  19. 19. Appendix  E:   Appendix  F:   1. What is your ‘pitch’ to a customer who is curious about about learning more about the new organization? 2. Would you say most customers understand the organization of the two groups? 3. Has your job changed since Bike Recycle Vermont bought Old Spokes Home? 4. What is done in the store to increase awareness about the organization of the two groups? 5. Do you experience any difficulty while communicating the nature of the new organization? 6. What ideas to you have to make communicating about the organization easier for you, and easier for customers to understand?
  20. 20. Appendix  G:   Appendix  H:  
  21. 21. Appendix  I:  
  22. 22. References   Kay,  Mark  J.  "Strong  brands  and  corporate  brands."  European  Journal  of  Marketing  40.7/8   (2006):  742-­‐760.