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Basics of Anatomy Physiology
& Pathology
Soumya Ranjan Parida
All Anatomy Descriptions
Basic Medical Terminologies
• Medial , Lateral, Median
• Transverse , longitudinal
• Ventral/ Anterior , Dorsal/
Posterior...
Position of the Heart
Mediastinum
Transverse section through thorax
Approaches
1. Sternotomy
2. Rt. Ant. Tho
3. Lt. Ant. Tho
4. Lt. Post. Tho
5. Rt. Post. Tho
Surfaces of Heart
Lateral
surface
Anterior
surface
Inferior
surface
Posterior
surface
Heart Anatomy
Brachiocephalic
Trunk
Left Common
Carotid Artery
Left Subclavian
Artery
Right Coronary
Artery
Left Coronary
...
Heart : Blood Flow
Layers of Heart
Function of Heart: Salient Features
•Blood flows in series
•Atria : reservoir , Ventricles: pump
•Two atria as one, Two ve...
•Handles blood but cannot use it DIRECTLY
•Receives its ‘pay’ through coronary arteries
•Blood Supply = Work
= BP X HR
Coronary Circulation
Facts
• 250ml blood per minute
• Extracts all oxygen even at rest
• Myocardium can not store oxygen
•...
Position: LAD,D – anterior; PD, PLV – Inferior; OM – Posterior
Non accessible : LM, LCx, S , intramyocardial vessels
Heart: as seen through median sternotomy
Coronaries shaded black are difficult/ impossible to see
Left Chest
• Structures: Lt heart
Aorta ,LSCA
Lt lung
• Approach to: + mitral valve
Lt coronaries
Right Chest
• Structures: Right lung, RSCA
• Approach to: + mitral valve, RA, SVC
Layers of heart/ Blood vessels
Terminologies
• Ischemia
• Angina
• Infarction
• Arteriosclerosis / Atherosclerosis
• Risk factors
• % stenosis , critical...
Atherosclerosis
• Generalised , affects all vessels
• proximal vessels>> distal vessels
• Cause: not known , risk factors ...
F∞ R4
Vessel, site, severity
Open heart surgery, cvs
Open heart surgery, cvs
Open heart surgery, cvs
Open heart surgery, cvs
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Open heart surgery, cvs

Open heart surgery

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Open heart surgery, cvs

  1. 1. Basics of Anatomy Physiology & Pathology Soumya Ranjan Parida
  2. 2. All Anatomy Descriptions
  3. 3. Basic Medical Terminologies • Medial , Lateral, Median • Transverse , longitudinal • Ventral/ Anterior , Dorsal/ Posterior • Cephalad / Superior , Caudad/ Inferior • Proximal, Distal
  4. 4. Position of the Heart
  5. 5. Mediastinum
  6. 6. Transverse section through thorax
  7. 7. Approaches 1. Sternotomy 2. Rt. Ant. Tho 3. Lt. Ant. Tho 4. Lt. Post. Tho 5. Rt. Post. Tho
  8. 8. Surfaces of Heart Lateral surface Anterior surface Inferior surface Posterior surface
  9. 9. Heart Anatomy Brachiocephalic Trunk Left Common Carotid Artery Left Subclavian Artery Right Coronary Artery Left Coronary Artery Left Anterior Descending Artery Circumflex Branch Right= Anterior , Left = Posterior
  10. 10. Heart : Blood Flow
  11. 11. Layers of Heart
  12. 12. Function of Heart: Salient Features •Blood flows in series •Atria : reservoir , Ventricles: pump •Two atria as one, Two ventricles as one •Valves prevent regurgitation •RV dispensable
  13. 13. •Handles blood but cannot use it DIRECTLY •Receives its ‘pay’ through coronary arteries •Blood Supply = Work = BP X HR
  14. 14. Coronary Circulation Facts • 250ml blood per minute • Extracts all oxygen even at rest • Myocardium can not store oxygen • Hence Increase in Demand = increase in supply
  15. 15. Position: LAD,D – anterior; PD, PLV – Inferior; OM – Posterior Non accessible : LM, LCx, S , intramyocardial vessels
  16. 16. Heart: as seen through median sternotomy
  17. 17. Coronaries shaded black are difficult/ impossible to see
  18. 18. Left Chest • Structures: Lt heart Aorta ,LSCA Lt lung • Approach to: + mitral valve Lt coronaries
  19. 19. Right Chest • Structures: Right lung, RSCA • Approach to: + mitral valve, RA, SVC
  20. 20. Layers of heart/ Blood vessels
  21. 21. Terminologies • Ischemia • Angina • Infarction • Arteriosclerosis / Atherosclerosis • Risk factors • % stenosis , critical/ sub total / total • Proximal block • ---- Equivalent : angina , LM
  22. 22. Atherosclerosis • Generalised , affects all vessels • proximal vessels>> distal vessels • Cause: not known , risk factors : known • Surgery treats blocks not the disease
  23. 23. F∞ R4
  24. 24. Vessel, site, severity

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