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Global Issues and Solutions for a Sustainable Tourism - Part 2 - by Florie Thielin

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Part 2 of the course developed by Florie Thielin for master's level students of Sup de Co La Rochelle : "Global Issues and Solution for a Sustainable Tourism"
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See Part 1 : https://fr.slideshare.net/floriethielin/global-issues-and-solutions-for-a-sustainable-tourism-part-1-by-florie-thielin-85861792
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Tourism impacts destinations in many ways : socially, environmentally, culturally, and economically. This course examines some well established controversies in tourism and some newly emerging controversial aspects associated with tourism as an activity and a business. For example, controversies involving clashes between visitors and host communities, the rights and wrongs of voluntourism, the impacts of Airbnb, the legitimacy of dark tourism, animals welfare in leisure activities... A particular attention will be given to ethical issues, responsible tourism and potential solutions / alternatives for a more sustainable development of the tourism industry.

Publié dans : Environnement
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Global Issues and Solutions for a Sustainable Tourism - Part 2 - by Florie Thielin

  1. 1. GLOBAL ISSUES & SOLUTIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE TOURISM By Florie Thielin, Master's level course – 2017 PART 2
  2. 2. FREE TO SHARE  This presentation was produced with the intention of being openly utilized by the public and other professors in order to help the progress of the tourism sector towards more sustainability. It may be broadcast and used freely. If you find it particularly useful, feel free to send out a quick message to the author, Florie Thielin, you will make her day ! Email : floriethielin@gmail.com
  3. 3. Summary Part 2 A. Case Studies B. Good practices in the industry 1. Corporations vs SMEs 2. Corporations 3. Greenwashing vs. Greenhushing 4. SMEs (Small and Mediums Entreprises) 5. Tools and tips
  4. 4. Summary Part 2 A. Case Studies B. Good practices in the industry 1. Corporations vs SMEs 2. Corporations 3. Greenwashing vs. Greenhushing 4. SMEs (Small and Mediums Entreprises) 5. Tools and tips C. Niche Markets 1. Community-based 2. Nature / Ecotourism 3. Birdwatching 4. Slow tourism 5. Dark tourism 6. Last chance tourism 7. Transformative tourism D. Communication
  5. 5. A. Case Studies
  6. 6. 1. Instructions Your company was recently awarded and you’re presenting its case during a conference about sustainable tourism at IBTM Barcelona :  Your company : What are its story, vision and good practices ?  Issues : Which are the main tourism challenges faced by its destination ?  Perspective : And what next in the future ?
  7. 7. 1. Instructions  Make teams of 2 students.  Choose a tourism companies which was awarded in the past.  Look for information online and contact at least one pertinent contact in the destination to ask him/her about the main tourism issues faced in the country/region/city.  End up with creative ideas of new and pertinent good practices that the company could implement (present them as if there were indeed the company plans for the future).  Present your case study to the class (15 min) on Monday 11th Dec.  The best presentations might be showcased on an article published on one of those medias : Voyageons-Autrement / TV5MONDE / Sustainability- Leaders / Travindy / Hopineo
  8. 8. 2. Certifications & Awards
  9. 9. 2. Webography – websites  In English :  Travindy : media  Sustainabilty Leaders : media  UNWTO : United Nations World Tourism Organization  See the list of international organizations on Hopineo.  In French :  Voyageons-Autrement : portail d’information  ATD – Acteurs du Tourisme Durable : association française professionnelle  ID Tourisme : blog du consultant Guillaume Cromer  Hopineo : plateforme collaborative  English & French : The Conversation
  10. 10. 2. Webography – social media  Look for specific hashtags on Twitter like :  #SustainableTourism  #IY2017 & #TravelEnjoyRespect (using Hootsuite, tweetdeck)  Ask questions on specific Facebook groups like :  Irreponsible Tourism  Global Ecotourism Network  Connect with pertinent tourism professionals on LinkedIn to ask them questions.
  11. 11. 3. Criteria of assessment  Topic well addressed and illustrated (with examples, pictures, patterns).  Transparency & pertinence of data sources and investigation method.  Quality of the oral presentation.  Appealing Power Point, well structured.
  12. 12. B. Good practices in the industry
  13. 13. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs What’s the most sustainable ? or
  14. 14. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs What’s the most sustainable travel agency ? or
  15. 15. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs What’s the most sustainable accomodation provider ? or
  16. 16. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs What’s the most sustainable restaurant ? or
  17. 17. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs The big involvement of the smallest ones is usually the most « sustainable », but…
  18. 18. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs …the little changes of the biggest ones, can also generate big impacts.
  19. 19. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs Read : ”Interview with Kevin Teng on Sustainability Practices at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore” An example : Other companies can now also get affordable environmental friendly materials. + = Encourage suppliers to provide alternative solutions and get certified.
  20. 20. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs ? What do you think of Read : “McDo France lance un burger végétarien”
  21. 21. 1. Corporations vs. SMEs A way to decrease world meat consumption ? What do you think of Read : “McDo France lance un burger végétarien” A way to get even more market shares ?
  22. 22. 2. Corporations Could a tourism industry without « big multinational corporations »* exist ? * talking particularly about publicly traded companies owned by shareholders.
  23. 23. 2. Corporations Yes please! Always more $$ for rich shareholders Leakage issues Tax havens Unfair competition Lobbying Not really… Capital investment needed (for infrastructures) Cheaper, better marketed : tourists are buying anyway. Could a tourism industry without « big multinational corporations » exist ? We don’t need : But :
  24. 24. 2. Corporations Yes please! Always more $$ for rich shareholders Leakage issues Tax havens Unfair competition Lobbying Not really… Capital investment needed (for infrastructures) Cheaper, better marketed : tourists are buying anyway. Could a tourism industry without « big multinational corporations » exist ? We don’t need : But :
  25. 25. 2. Corporations Yes please! Always more $$ for rich shareholders Leakage issues Tax havens Unfair competition Lobbying Not really… Capital investment needed (for infrastructures) Cheaper, better marketed : tourists are buying anyway. Could a tourism industry without « big multinational corporations » exist ? We don’t need : But :
  26. 26. Watch the video : « Airbnb, l'autre visage d'un géant du partage - Tout Compte Fait » 2. Corporations Read the article : « La carte Airbnb permet d’échapper au fisc » The example of Airbnb
  27. 27. So how can the negative impacts of big tourism coporpations be reduced ?  We need first to better understand their way of thinking. 2. Corporations
  28. 28. 2. Corporations How does a publicly traded company owned by shareholders work ? Watch the video : « Social Responsibility Perspectives: The Shareholder and Stakeholder Approach »
  29. 29. 2. Corporations How does a publicly traded company owned by shareholders work ? Watch the video : « Social Responsibility Perspectives: The Shareholder and Stakeholder Approach »
  30. 30. 2. Corporations How does a publicly traded company owned by shareholders work ? Watch the video : « Social Responsibility Perspectives: The Shareholder and Stakeholder Approach »
  31. 31. 2. Corporations Shareholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders. Stakeholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders... …through satisfying multiple stakeholders. Different approaches to social responsibility :
  32. 32. 2. Corporations Shareholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders. Stakeholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders... …through satisfying multiple stakeholders. Different approaches to social responsibility :
  33. 33. 2. Corporations Shareholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders. Stakeholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders... …through satisfying multiple stakeholders. Different approaches to social responsibility : X
  34. 34. 2. Corporations Shareholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders. Stakeholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders... …through satisfying multiple stakeholders. 2nd 1st • Special interests groups • Media • Customers • Employees • Investors • Suppliers • Governments • Communities Primary and Secondary stakeholders :
  35. 35. 2. Corporations Shareholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders. Stakeholder Model  Profit maximixation to make money for shareholders... …through satisfying multiple stakeholders. 2nd 1st • Special interests groups • Media • Customers • Employees • Investors • Suppliers • Governments • Communities Primary and Secondary stakeholders :
  36. 36. 2. Corporations Watch the video : « Creating sustainability value » More concretely, how can a business create value for its shareholders through sustainability ?
  37. 37. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  38. 38. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  39. 39. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  40. 40. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  41. 41. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  42. 42. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  43. 43. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  44. 44. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  45. 45. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  46. 46. 2. Corporations Video : « Creating sustainability value »
  47. 47. 2. Corporations Having said all that, let’s lauch our own CSR Awards ! *Corporate Social Responsibility
  48. 48. 2. Corporations  Hotel Groups
  49. 49. 2. Corporations  Hotel Groups 6,000 properties in 122 countries
  50. 50. 2. Corporations  Hotel Groups 5,000 properties 825,00 rooms in 103 countries
  51. 51. 2. Corporations  Hotel Groups 5,221 properties 777,675 rooms in 100 countries
  52. 52. 2. Corporations  Hotel Groups 4,200 hotels 600,000 rooms in 95 countries
  53. 53. 2. Corporations  Hotel Groups 214 properties 41,000 rooms in the Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland)
  54. 54. 2. Corporations  Hospitality, Leisure & Entertainment
  55. 55.  Online Travel Agencies (OTA) 2. Corporations
  56. 56. 2. Corporations  Airlines Companies
  57. 57. 2. Corporations : good pratices ? Which concrete actions are taking the biggest tourism companies ?  Choose one corporation (from the list or another one of your choice!)  Have a look at its CSR policy  List one concrete action that you particularly liked (with clear numbers, transparency and proofs ?) and present it to the class. Listen to the others, you’ll be part of the jury, and together we’ll vote for the 3 finalists and the winner !  Google Sheet
  58. 58. 2. Corporations : alternatives ? ?
  59. 59. 2. Corporations : alternatives ?
  60. 60. 2. Corporations : alternatives ? It’s a real challenge for new platforms to emerge as the bigger players have : • Particularly for technologies investment and marketing. Enormous budgets • Of service providers and customers. Huge communities Ex : Possibility to connect with a channel manager ?
  61. 61. 2. Corporations : alternatives ? It’s a real challenge for new platforms to emerge as the bigger players have : • Particularly for technologies investment and marketing. Enormous budgets • Of service providers and customers. Huge communities Ex : Possibility to connect with a channel manager ?
  62. 62. 3. Greenwashing vs. Greenhushing Greenwashing Greenhushing versus
  63. 63. 3. Greenwashing vs. Greenhushing Greenwashing ? Read : Hotel ‘greenwashing’ dirties eco-friendly reputation When a company is communicating about being “green” but doesn't do much.
  64. 64. 3. Greenwashing vs. Greenhushing Greenhushing ? Read : Greenhushing: why some sustainability committed accommodation businesses only communicate 30% of what they do When a company is implementing great “green” initiatives but doesn't communicate about it.
  65. 65. 3. Greenwashing vs. Greenhushing Greenhushing ? Read : Greenhushing: why some sustainability committed accommodation businesses only communicate 30% of what they do When a company is implementing great “green” initiatives but doesn't communicate about it. By : • Lack of communication budget and skills • Choosing to not communicate as they perceive that the customers might : • not care, • link it to a low quality offer, • question (greenwashing or real ?).
  66. 66. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Which concrete actions are taking the smallest tourism companies ?  Watch some of the following short documentaries.  Which Hopineo category & GSTC criteria do they correspond to ?
  67. 67. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Construction Social Responsibility Local Development Travelers’ awareness Local Heritage & Biodiversity Energy Water Waste Agriculture & Catering Transport Concrete examples of good practices on www.Hopineo.org
  68. 68. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  69. 69. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  70. 70. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  71. 71. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  72. 72. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  73. 73. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  74. 74. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  75. 75. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  76. 76. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  77. 77. 4. Small & Mediums Entreprises Good practices documented during my 2 years through Latin America :
  78. 78. 4. Tools : to measure
  79. 79. 4. Tools : to measure How to measure sustainability ? Let’s have a look at a few tools that already exist or in development.
  80. 80. 4. Tools : to measure How to measure sustainability ? Pick up one tool, have a look at it and present it to your colleagues ! • Betterfly softwares : • Hotels : Environmental label & Winggy • Restaurants : Edgar • Destinations : Green Passport • CCI Business Optimizer • Info Compensation Carbone • Hotel Footprint Tool • The Global Sustainable Tourism Dashboard
  81. 81. 4. Tools : to measure Environmental labelling Read : « L’affichage environnemental se déploie dans les hôtels en France » Experimented since 2011 in France, it might become an obligation in the future for hotels ?
  82. 82. 4. Tools : to measure Winggy For hotels : environmental impacts assesment and reduction.
  83. 83. 4. Tools : to measure Edgar For restaurants : food waste assessment and reduction Read : « Energy Efficiency in the Kitchen »
  84. 84. 4. Tools : to measure Green Passport For destinations : impact assessment and reduction.
  85. 85. 4. Tools : to measure CCI Business Optimizer For hotels and restaurants : compare and reduce your consumption.
  86. 86. 4. Tools : to measure Info Compensation Carbone For everybody : compensate your CO2 emissions Read : Evaluer, réduire, et compenser ses émissions de CO2
  87. 87. 4. Tools : to measure Hotel Footprint Tool For hotels : measure and compare your hotel carbon emissions and energy use.
  88. 88. 4. Tools : to measure Global Sustainable Tourism Dashboard For destinations : impact assessment and reduction.
  89. 89. 4. Tools : to measure Global Sustainable Tourism Dashboard How can tourism help achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN) ? What share of the global tourism business happens in developing countries ? How is tourism distributed around the planet ? What’s the total global passenger carbon dioxide emissions ? How efficiently are energies used in the hotel industry ? How many natural World Heritage sites have a tourism management plan ? What’s the proportion of female employed in the tourism workforce ? How many deaths per year due to terrorism acts that involve tourism ?
  90. 90. 4. Tips : for start-ups How to start and help with financing your sustainable tourism initiative ? • Join a network or incubator • Start a crowdfunding campaign • Hire a consultant, such as GoodProject • Apply for subventions : « Guide des financements de l'UE pour le secteur du tourisme 2014-2020 » Read : Comment financer ma démarche de tourisme durable
  91. 91. 4. Tips : for start-ups You’re an entrepreneur in tourism, and you are looking to start off on the right foot your business, which incubator / accelerator could you join ?  Google Sheet Paris Québec Amsterdam Troyes Nantes
  92. 92. 4. Tips : for start-ups Why joining an incubator / accelerator ? • Let’s list the different reasons you found out !
  93. 93. 4. Tips : for start-ups What’s the difference ? Incubator • + Innovation • Coworking space with no set schedule. • Often focused on a specific market or vertical. • For France : www.mon- incombateur.com Accelerator • + Scaling a business • One-shot program with a set timeframe : from a few weeks to a few months. • More selective application process. • Usually in exchange for a small amount of equity. • Pitch at the end attended by investors and media. Read « Incubateur de startup, accélérateur, comment ça marche ? »
  94. 94. C. Market Segments
  95. 95. Market Segments Sustainable tourism is NOT a market segment !
  96. 96. But some market segments can be considered as more “sustainable” by their core nature. Which ones do you think of ? Market Segments
  97. 97. Market Segments – by motivations Nature Sport CultureWellness Some examples : Community- based Adventure Climbing Wildlife, birdwatching Creative Art Religious Diving, surf Photography Culinary History Cycling Detox Agrotourism, rural, productive tourism Trekking, hiking Street art
  98. 98. Market Segments – by demography Tourism for all Life cycleMinorities Backpackers Flashpackers Families Seniors Accessible GLBT
  99. 99. Market Segments – transversal Dark tourism Transversal concepts Last chance tourism Voluntourism Transformative Slow Tourism Microadventures
  100. 100. Market Segments Let’s have a closer look to some of them !
  101. 101. Market Segments • Pick up one niche market  Google Sheet • Review links and/or make additional researches  Give a short definition.  List a few concrete examples (destinations / sub segments / trends )  What else did you learn you’d like to share with the class ?
  102. 102. 1. Community-based tourism (CBT) See : Some Proposed Models for Successful Community Based Tourism Tourism activities should not damage the local community’s way of life or traditions. Usually the ‘community’ works with a local tour operator. The local people get a fair share of the benefits and profits. They also have a say in how incoming tourism is managed.” Source : CBI What is it ? “CBT aims to include local communities in tourism. The most important aspects are:  benefitting local communities (especially rural or indigenous people),  contributing to their wellbeing,  preservation of their cultural and environmental assets.
  103. 103. 1. Community-based tourism (CBT) Examples ? In Latin America :  Andean Lodges in Peru – video  LARECOTURH in Honduras – video  Tusoco in Bolivia – video  ASTURS in Peru – video  Ecuador, Amazon – video  Bonete, Ilhabela island, Brazil – video  Networks of associations through Latin America : RedTurs, Travolution, Alba Sud, Village Monde Read the CBI market study
  104. 104. 2. Nature / Ecotourism What is it ? “Nature tourism is based on experiences directly related to nature. Enjoying nature is the primary motive for travelling. According to the Rainforest Alliance, nature-based tourism accounts for about 20% of international travel. It focuses on:  natural landscapes,  flora and fauna  lifestyles of people living in natural environments.  It includes a wide range of ‘soft’ activities, for example: camping, staying in a rainforest lodge, a boat trip, walking, hiking, visiting a national park or wildlife observation.” Source : CBI
  105. 105. 2. Nature / Ecotourism Examples ? According to industry experts, popular nature and eco tourism destinations include: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Brazil, Cabo Verde, South Africa, Botswana, India, Indonesia, Thailand. Read the CBI market study
  106. 106. 2. Nature / Ecotourism Source : Protected areas categories by IUCN Examples ? Different kind of protected nature areas that can be visited : National Park Wildlife sanctuary Protected and reserved forests No human activity inside the buffer or core zone. Tourism is permitted in some specific areas. Some human activities are permitted, such as indigenous people living inside. Biosphere reserve + strict
  107. 107. 2. Nature / Ecotourism Examples ? Different kind of protected nature areas that can be visited : Biosphere reserve : Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well. See the UNESCO’s Man & Biosphere program.
  108. 108. 3. Birdwatching What is it ? “Birdwatching tourism or avitourism refers to travel with the main purpose of viewing birds in their natural habitat. As it is centred on components of the natural environment, birds and their habitat, birdwatching tourism is a subcategory of nature-based tourism. This type of tourism takes place mainly in natural environments, with the specific purpose of viewing and experiencing the natural features of a destination.” Source : CBI
  109. 109. 3. Birdwatching Examples ? In Latin America :  Canopy Tower in Panama  Mindo, Ecuador  Birdwatching Costa Rica Watch the movie The Big Year (2011) Read the CBI market study See Better attract birdwatchier travelers
  110. 110. 4. Slow tourism What is it ? “Slow tourism : become part of local life and to connect to a place, its people, its culture, by traveling more slowly, taking time to focus on one region of a country, walking or biking for example.”
  111. 111. 5. Dark tourism What is it ? “Dark tourism : tourism involving travel to places historically associated with death and tragedy.” “Chernobyl Tour” Ukraine “Pablo Escobar Tour” Medellin, Colombia
  112. 112. 6. Last chance tourism What is it ? “Last chance tourism : tourists want to see vanishing landscapes/seascapes, disappearing species, ancestral cultures before it is too late.”
  113. 113. 7. Transformative tourism What is it ? “it’s travel motivated and defined by a shift in perspective, self-reflection and development, and a deeper communion with nature and culture.”
  114. 114. D. Communication
  115. 115. How to effectively communicate ?
  116. 116. To Conclude
  117. 117. Key Takeaways  Which economical, social, and environmental impacts may have tourism on a destination / on the planet ?  What can governments / tourism boards, tourists and tourism companies do to reduce the negative impacts ?  Which reasons can make a tourism company want to become more “sustainable” ?  Which are the pros and cons of sustainable tourism certifications for the companies ?  What’s the difference between the shareholder and stakeholder models ?  What do we call “greenwashing” ? “greenhushing” ?  Which niche markets that can be considered as more “sustainable” ?  Watch again the movie “tomorrow” and read the article “Tourismophobie, le grand bal des hypocrites”
  118. 118. To Conclude Working in “sustainable tourism” ?  Sustainable tourism is not a niche or a key skill.  Develop the set of skills you like the most (marketing, operations, management etc…)  And choose to work for a company that follows your values.  Or start your own business ! Read : Travailler dans le secteur du tourisme responsible ?
  119. 119. To Conclude You’re the next generation !
  120. 120. To Conclude So, will you choose to be ostruch or hummingbird ?
  121. 121. To Conclude Nobody is 100% sustainable. It’s a path you decide to take : using common sense, thinking long term for the company & its various stakeholders, and keeping this in mind in all daily decisions.
  122. 122. To Conclude Conclusion of the movie “Demain”, from ,1m53”06
  123. 123. To Conclude • Manger bio et peu de viande • Opter pour un fournisseur d’électricité renouvelable • Acheter dans des commerces locaux et indépendants • Changer de banque • Réduire, réutiliser, recycler, réparer, partager…
  124. 124. To Conclude 3 Create positive impacts 2 Reduce negative impacts 1 Take Responsibility
  125. 125. Start to follow :  In French :  Voyageons-Autrement : portail d’information sur le tourisme responsable  ATD – Acteurs du Tourisme Durable : association française professionnelle  ID Tourisme : blog du consultant Guillaume Cromer, chaîne YouTube  Hopineo : plateforme collaborative pour collecter les bonnes pratiques  Veille info tourisme : weekly newsletter  English & French :  The Conversation : articles écrits par des chercheurs et universitaires  In English :  CBI : many market studies by the Dutch ministry of foreign affairs  Travindy : media  Sustainabilty Leaders : media
  126. 126. Ideas of books to read : 5 books recommended by Sustainability Leaders :  “Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism” by Elizabeth Becker (Simon & Schuster, 2013)  “International Cases in Sustainable Travel & Tourism” by Dagmar Lund-Durlacher & Pierre Benckendorf (Goodfellow Publishers, 2013)  “Green Growth and Travelism: Letters from Leaders” by Geoffrey Lipman, Terry DeLacy, Shaun Vorster, Rebecca Hawkins, and Min Jiang (Goodfellow Publishers, 2012)  “Taking Responsibility for Tourism” by Harold Goodwin (Goodfellow Publishers, 2011)  “Sustainable Tourism in Island Destinations” by Sonya Graci and Rachel Dodds (Earthscan/Routledge, 2010)

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