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Ijcet 06 09_004

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Ijcet 06 09_004

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Ijcet 06 09_004

  1. 1. http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 32 editor@iaeme.com International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET) Volume 6, Issue 9, Sep 2015, pp. 32-41, Article ID: IJCET_06_09_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCET/issues.asp?JType=IJCET&VType=6&IType=9 ISSN Print: 0976-6367 and ISSN Online: 0976–6375 © IAEME Publication ___________________________________________________________________________ SIMULATION BASED AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR VANET USING VANETMOBISIM AND NS-2 Vongpasith Phouthone College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, 410082, Changsha, China Wang Dong College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, 410082, Changsha, China ABSTRACT Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a distributed, self-organizing communication networks built up by vehicles traveling on the streets; with expected to benefit in safety applications, and disseminating real-time traffic congestion. VANET is thus characterized by very high speeds and limited degrees of freedom in nodes movement patterns, such particular features often make standard networking protocols inefficient and effect on performance of routing protocols. Therefore, routing protocols in VANET is become a challenging task. This research paper analyzes routing protocol based on the performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and throughput of the network under VANET environments using a network simulator (Ns-2) for simulating network connection and VanetMobiSim for generating the mobility pattern of vehicles. This experiment has provided insight into the performance of routing protocols for urban random scenario. Finding indicates simulation of different number of nodes only marginally affected VANET routing performance in our experimental settings. Key words: Ns-2, Routing Protocols, VANET, VanetMobiSim Cite this Article: Vongpasith Phouthone and Wang Dong. Simulation Based and Analysis of Routing Protocols for Vanet Using Vanetmobisim and Ns-2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology, 6(9), 2015, pp. 32-41. http://www.iaeme.com/IJCET/issues.asp?JType=IJCET&VType=6&IType=9
  2. 2. Simulation Based and Analysis of Routing Protocols for Vanet Using Vanetmobisim and Ns-2 http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 33 editor@iaeme.com 1. INTRODUCTION VANET is a distributed, self-organizing series of communication networks built up by vehicles traveling on the streets, expected to benefit safety applications, gathering and disseminating real-time traffic congestion and routing information, sharing of wireless channels for mobile applications etc [1]. VANET is special case of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), both MANET and VANET networks are multi hop mobile networks with dynamic topology [2]. However, VANET is thus characterized by very high speeds and limited degrees of freedom in nodes movement patterns [1], such particular features often make standard networking protocols inefficient or unusable and effect on performance of routing protocols. Therefore, networking protocols in VANET become a challenging task, that is why a rich research in the development of protocols specific for VANET is in progress. So far to improve the routing performance and reliability, various protocols in VANET have been analyzed using different parameters. In [3] [4][5][6] proactive and reactive protocols have been compared based upon number of variables including: packets lost, average end-to-end delay, average packet Jitter, packet delivery ratio and throughput of the network. In the proposed works, the most efficient routing protocols to be used for different applications has been identified based upon the results of the comparison. One of the critical aspects when evaluating routing protocols for VANET is the employment of the mobility pattern of vehicles also called the mobility model that reflect as closely as possible the real behavior of vehicular traffic. Several studies in analyzing the performance of routing protocols using different mobility models that are specific to VANET have been published: In [7][8][9][10][13] demonstrate how the protocol performance varies across different mobility models and how the performance ranking of protocols may vary with the mobility model used. Deploying and testing VANET involves high cost and manpower. Hence, simulation of VANET is a useful methodology tool prior to actual implementation. In this paper we have analyzed routing performance of DSDV, AODV and AOMDV routing protocol in simulation based VANET environment using network simulator (Ns-2) to simulate network connection and VanetMobiSim to generate the mobility pattern of vehicles with urban random scenario. The performance evaluation is based on the metric of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay and throughput of the network. The rest of the paper is organized in the following manner: section 2 discuss about the routing protocols for simulation. Simulation environments are presented in section 3. The simulation results are shown in section 4 and finally paper is concluded in the section 5. 2. ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR SIMULATION The routing protocols basically perform the three main functionality route discovery, maintenance and selection of the most efficient path from the various available paths. The routing protocols in the VANET environment are characterized on the basis of application where they are most suitable [3]. VANET routing protocols can be classified as topology-based and geographic-based [11]. In this paper we focused on only topology based routing protocols i.e. DSDV, AODV and AOMDV.
  3. 3. Vongpasith Phouthone and Wang Dong http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 34 editor@iaeme.com Figure 1 Classification of VANET Routing Protocols [12] 2.1. Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV) DSDV [13] is a proactive, table-driven routing protocol scheme which is basically a distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad hoc networks. These adjustments consist of triggered updates that will take care of topology changes in the time between broad casts [3]. In DSDV every node maintains a table of information in the presence of every other node in the network. It update the table periodically when change occurred in the network. If any change occur in the network then it broadcasts to every node in the network [4]. 2.2. Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) AODV establishes a route to a destination when there is a demand occurs for the transmission of the data. It does not contain any loop [14]. AODV routing protocol has consist a route request packet and a route reply packets < RREQ, RREP> pair of message to find the route. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or the node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by unceasing a RREP back to the source. AODV is only updates the relevant neighboring node(s) instead of broadcasting every node of the network [1]. 2.3. Ad Hoc on Demand Multipath Routing Protocol (AOMDV) AOMDV [9] is an extension of a single path routing scheme AODV by computing multiple paths during route discoveries. It allows to compute multiple loop free and link disjoint paths between any source and destination nodes. In AOMDV, different instances of RREQs are not discarded by intermediate nodes. The intermediate node rebroadcasts the new RREQs to neighbor nodes. When the destination receives more RREQ instances, in order to get multiple link disjoint routes, it replies with multiple RREP messages.
  4. 4. Simulation Based and Analysis of Routing Protocols for Vanet Using Vanetmobisim and Ns-2 http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 35 editor@iaeme.com 3. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENTS The main goal of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performance of the three VANET routing protocols DSDV, AODV and AOMDV. There are the various tools that are used for producing the realistic or random mobility model and simulation of network traffic. For this paper it has been used software VanetMobiSim-1.1 and Ns- 2.35 to generate the vehicular trace file for network simulation and simulate network connection between nodes respectively. 3.1. VanetMobiSim The Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Mobility Simulator (VanetMobiSim) is a set of extensions to CanuMobiSim, a framework for user mobility modeling used by the CANU (Communication in Ad Hoc Networks for Ubiquitous Computing) Research Group. The framework includes a number of mobility models, as well as parsers for geographic data sources in various formats, and a visualization module. The set of extensions provided by VanetMobiSim consists mainly on a vehicular spatial model which is created from topological data obtained in user defined, random, Geographic Data Files (GDF) and TIGER/line Files. After that the vehicular specific spatial elements such as multi lane and multi flow roads, stop signs and traffic lights are added. The main component of the vehicular oriented model is the support of a microscopic level mobility model named “Intelligent Driving Model with Intersection Management (IDM_IM)” and IDM with Lane Changing (IDM LC) [15]. 3.2 Ns-2 Ns-2 refer as network simulator (version 2) developed at UC Berkeley. It is a event driven simulator and it is object oriented simulator in which code is written either in C++ or in OCTL. It provides a packet level simulation over a lot of protocols, supporting several transport protocols, several forms of multi-cast, wired networking, several ad hoc routing protocols and propagation models, data broadcasting, satellite, etc. It incorporates different traffic generators as web, telnet, CBR (constant bit rate generator), etc. for using them in the simulations. Also, Ns-2 has the possibility of using mobile nodes. The mobility of these nodes may be specified either directly in the simulation file or by using a mobility trace file. It uses three types of files namely Tool Command Language file (.tcl), Trace file (.tr) and Network Animator file (.nam). Tool command language file (.tcl) has subsets of commands which are written into it for simulation. While simulator runs on (.tcl), simulation trace file (.tr) and animation file (.nam) are created during the session [16]. 3.3 Simulation setup The figure 2. represents the main scheme, in which is based from beginning to end the processes for the simulation and results analysis.
  5. 5. Vongpasith Phouthone and Wang Dong http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 36 editor@iaeme.com Figure 2 Diagram of processes for obtaining the results Firstly in the software VanetMobiSim-1.1, the scenario of vehicular traffic trace file (*.tr) is generated. This trace is compatible with the network simulator Ns-2.35, and is loaded together with the network traffic trace file (*.tr). Secondly the trace (*.tr) and network animation file (*.nam) are generated, after running the simulations in Ns-2.35. The first trace allows to distinguish all the events produced during the simulation line by line for a comprehensive analysis of the network, and the second trace represents the events in a graphical interface friendly for the user. Finally the simulation results are filtered with awk. In the two following tables the configuration parameters assumed for vehicular traffic generation and network simulation respectively: Table 1Parameters of traffic simulation for VanetMobiSim-1.1 Parameters Value Simulation area Number of nodes (vehicles) Scenario Number of lane Number of traffic lights Time interval between traffic light changes Max velocity Min velocity Driver Model Simulation time 1000 m × 1000 m 25, 35, 45, 55, 65,75,85,95 Urban Random 2 6 10000 ms 13.89 m/s 8.33 m/s Intelligent Driven Model (IDM -LC) 3600s
  6. 6. Simulation Based and Analysis of Routing Protocols for Vanet Using Vanetmobisim and Ns-2 http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 37 editor@iaeme.com Table 2 Parameters of network simulation for Ns-2.35 Parameters Value Simulation area MAC Type N/W Interface Type Interface Queue Type Propagation model Transmission range Antenna model Number of nodes (vehicles) Number of connections Routing protocols Transport protocols Traffic Type Packet size Transmission rate Simulation time 1500 m × 1500 m Mac/802_11 Phy/WirelessPhy Queue/DropTail/PriQueue TwoRayGround 250 m OmniAntenna 25, 35, 45, 55, 65,75,85,95 12, 17, 22, 27, 32,37,42,47 DSDV, AODV, AOMDV TCP FTP 512 bytes 50 pack/s 60s 3.4. Performance metrics Different performance metrics are used to check the performance of routing protocols in various network environments. In our study we have selected packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and throughput for different number of vehicles in order to check the performance of VANET routing protocols DSDV, AODV and AOMD against each other. 3.4.1 Packet delivery ratio The packet delivery ratio (PDR) is defined as the number of data packets that were successfully delivered at destinations by the number of data packets that were sent by sources [4]. This metric is calculated by dividing the number of packet received by destination through the number packet originated from source [6]. The high packet delivery ratio presents better performance of a protocol. (%) (1) Where Pr is total Packet received and Ps is the total Packet sent. 3.4.2 Average End to End delay (EED) It is define as the calculation of the total time from the source end to the destination end taken by the packet. For this metric, lower the time taken, more privileged is the routing protocol [3]. The equation 2, is used to calculate the average delay from end to end. [ms] (2) Where i is packet identifier, n is number of packets successfully delivered, is reception time and is send time.
  7. 7. Vongpasith Phouthone and Wang Dong http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 38 editor@iaeme.com 3.4.3 Throughput Throughput (TH) is defined as the number of the successfully delivered data packets on a communication network. In different words it describes as the total number of received packets at the destination out of total transmitted packets [4]. The high of throughput presents better performance of a protocol. For this calculation has been used the equation 3. [Kbps] (3) Where Br is received bits, T1 is start time and T2 is stop time. 4. SIMULATION RESULTS We will compare three protocols DSDV, AODV and AOMDV under the above simulation environment. The following graphs show the performance in simulation based VANET environment with number of vehicles varying from 25 to 95 for DSDV, AODV and AOMDV routing protocol, in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end to end delay and throughput. The yellow, red and blue line shows graph for DSDV, AODV and AOMDV routing protocol respectively. Fig. 3 shows the graphs of packet delivery ratio. After number of nodes increased by 5, the basic difference in the packet delivery ratio of both AODV and AOMDV is less and always greater than 90%. Moreover, the AODV and AOMDV show high packet delivery ratio compared to DSDV. But in case of DSDV, it gives the lowest packet delivery ratio when the number of nodes is 65. So it is clearly shown that both AODV and AOMDV outperformed DSDV in terms of packet delivery ratio. Figure 3 Analysis of Packet Delivery Ratio Fig. 4 shows the graph of average end to end delay. It is observed that initially and finally average end to end delay of AODV is higher than AOMDV and DSDV. When the numbers of nodes are 35 and 45, average end to end delay of both AODV and AOMDV protocols are quite similar. When the number of nodes are 65, 75 and 85 average end to end delay of AOMDV is higher than AODV. But in case of DSDV, it is giving lesser average end to end delay than AODV and AOMDV after number of
  8. 8. Simulation Based and Analysis of Routing Protocols for Vanet Using Vanetmobisim and Ns-2 http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 39 editor@iaeme.com nodes increased by 5. So it is clearly shown that DSDV outperformed both AODV and AOMDV in terms of average end to end delay. Figure 4 Analysis of average End to End Delay Fig. 5 shows the graph of throughput. It is observed that DSDV shows completely higher throughput as compared to AOMDV and initially throughput of AODV is also higher than AOMDV until number of nodes are 75. Up to 55 and 65 nodes the value of throughput of three protocols DSDV, AODV and AOMDV is also sharply decreasing from 441.88, 510.02 and 280.62 to 154.84, 160.86 and 119.31 (kbps) respectively. Whereas AOMDV throughput is better than AODV after number of nodes become 95. Figure 5 Analysis of Throughput
  9. 9. Vongpasith Phouthone and Wang Dong http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 40 editor@iaeme.com 5. CONCLUSION In this paper, we simulated and analyzed the performance of three routing protocols namely DSDV, AODV and AOMDV for vehicular ad hoc networks based on the metric of packet delivery ratio, average end to end delay and throughput using Ns-2 and VanetMobiSim with number of vehicles varying from 25 to 95. After simulation and analysis, it is concluded that performance of the both AODV and AOMDV protocol are superior to DSDV protocols in packet delivery ratio. Moreover for higher number of nodes the statistic of AODV packet delivery ratio is close to AOMDV. However the end-to-end delay of DSDV is lesser than both AODV and AOMDV. In addition, DSDV shows higher average of throughput as compared to AOMDV. Another important finding was that simulation of different number of nodes only marginally affected VANET routing performance in our experimental settings and from these any single protocol is not suitable for efficient routing in different environment. For VANET research area, routing protocol is always vital resource and cope for further works; Therefore to this research, other new protocols can also be studied. 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to thank all the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback on the work presented over here which helped us successfully complete this paper. I would like to thank Prof. Wang Dong for giving me the opportunity of working on this research project. REFERENCES [1] M. R.Boopathi and R. M. E, Performance evaluation of AODV and OLSR in VANETs under realistic mobility pattern, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology, 4(2), 2013, 58-71. [2] A. N. Mahajan and R. Dadhich, comparative Analysis of VANET Routing Protocols Using VANET RBC and IEEE 802.11p, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(4), 2013, 531-538. [3] Y. M. Sharma and S. Mukherjee, Comparative performance exploration of AODV, DSDV & DSR routing protocol in cluster based VANET environment, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology, 4(2), 2012, 120-127. [4] N. Chandel and V. Gupta, Comparative analysis of aodv, dsr and DSDV routing protocols for vanet city scenario, IJRITCC, 2, 2014. [5] S. V. P. Chauhan and P. Arya, Comparative analysis of routing protocols in ad- hoc network: AODV, DSDV, DSR, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 3, 2013. [6] K. R. V. Maldonado, M. Quinones and R. Torres, Comparison Routing Protocols and Mobility Models for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks using Real Maps, International Journal of Computer Applications, 60(19), 2012. [7] N. M. Mittal and S. Choudhary, Comparative Study of Simulators for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 4(4), 2014. [8] Nidhi and D. Lobiyal, Performance evaluation of realistic VANET using traffic light scenario, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, 4(1), 2012.
  10. 10. Simulation Based and Analysis of Routing Protocols for Vanet Using Vanetmobisim and Ns-2 http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 41 editor@iaeme.com [9] V. Godbole, Intelligent Driver Mobility Model and Traffic Pattern Generation based Optimization of Reactive Protocols for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks, International Journal of Information and Network Security, 2(3), 2013, 207 214. [10] D. T. Saurabh D. Patil and V. D. Khairnar, DEMO: Simulation of Realistic Mobility Model and Implementation of 802.11p (DSRC) for Vehicular Networks (VANET), International Journal of Computer Applications, 43(21), 2012. [11] A. K. Malhi, and A.K. Verma, Simulation and Analysis of Dropped Packets for DSR Protocol in VANETs, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, 1(4), 2012. [12] Mrs. R.Rajasree, Dr.G. Kalivarathan. A Review on Routing Protocols and Non Uniformity with Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 2012, pp. 348 - 354. [13] R. Dadhich and R. C. Poonia, Mobility simulation of reactive routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc networks, International Journal of Computer Applications, 4, 2012, 120–127. [14] C. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance- vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 4, 1994, 234–244. [15] E. B.-R. Perkins, C. and S. Das, Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, RFC 3561, Network Working Group, 2003, 120–127. [16] VanetMobiSim, http://vanet.eurecom.fr [17] Ns-2. Network simulato, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns [18] Prinima, Dr.R.K.Tuteja. Comparative Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols Using Ns2 Simulator. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology, 3(2), 2012, pp. 181 - 187.

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