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Forest tenure reforms and women rights
Iliana Monterroso, Anne Larson, Esther Mwangi, Nining Liswanti, Tuti Herawati, Baru...
Outline
1. Introduction to the research
2. Countries of study, gender in law
3. Collective tenure regimes, types of reform...
Introduction (2)
• Are women being taken into account in reform processes
(design/implementation)?
• What are the outcomes...
Gender and collective tenure:
Increasing attention from
practitioners
Where?
Peru
Ugand
a
Indone
sia
Legal provisions considering gender
in forest tenure reforms
Constitutional level: Gender justice and/or equity considerat...
Regime and Reform Types
Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys), Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696)...
Who counts as a member of the collective?
(Who represents the collective?)
 Depends on national law & policy, type of ref...
Forest dependence
Uganda: mainly subsistence (firewood,
poles and timber)
Peru and Indonesia: more diversified
(more than ...
Results 1. Gender differentiation and Forest Uses
(b)
WOMEN
MEN
Results 2. Are reforms promoting
involvement in Forest Management
activities?
 Indonesia and Peru: Reforms favor
forest m...
Results 3. Are reforms favoring changes in
forest management practices?
• In Peru and Uganda
women adopt more
technologies...
Results 4. Are reforms promoting
participation in decision making about forest
management?
• Participation in decisions is...
Results 5. Perception on rules: men vs. women (a)
13%
9%
17%
25%
22% 15%
62% 60% 64%
43%
69% 69%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
1...
Results 6. Perception on rules: poor vs. non-poor(b)
8% 18% 21%
28%
15% 20%
61% 60% 56%
32%
75%
64%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100...
• State interventions in reform design/implementation risk introducing,
formalizing and/or perpetuating internal social di...
• Low participation of women in the formulation of access and use rules
– Implications on how women/men benefit from refor...
cifor.org
blog.cifor.org
ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org
THANK YOU¡¡
HTTP://WWW.CIFOR.ORG/GCS-TENURE/
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Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest tenure reforms and women’s rights

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Presented by Iliana Monterroso, from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), at the XVI Biennial IASC Conference ‘Practicing the commons: self-governance, cooperation, and institutional change’, in Utrecht, the Netherlands, on July 11, 2017.

Publié dans : Environnement
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Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest tenure reforms and women’s rights

  1. 1. Forest tenure reforms and women rights Iliana Monterroso, Anne Larson, Esther Mwangi, Nining Liswanti, Tuti Herawati, Baruani Mshale, Mani Ram Banjade and Julia Quaedvlieg IASC Conference, July 2017 Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes:
  2. 2. Outline 1. Introduction to the research 2. Countries of study, gender in law 3. Collective tenure regimes, types of reform 4. Gender in reform design/implementation 5. Social differentiation and forest dependence 6. Who benefits from reforms: o Involvement in forest management o Participation in Decision Making o Perception on rules 7. Reflections and conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction (2) • Are women being taken into account in reform processes (design/implementation)? • What are the outcomes of reform for women? (e.g. forest management, rules) Gender and other potential sources of social differentiation (poor / non-poor) Reform processes, collective tenure and gender
  4. 4. Gender and collective tenure: Increasing attention from practitioners
  5. 5. Where? Peru Ugand a Indone sia
  6. 6. Legal provisions considering gender in forest tenure reforms Constitutional level: Gender justice and/or equity considerations are included as principles in national constitution (3 countries) International: • UNDRIP – ratified by the 3 countries • VGGTs – adopted by the 3 countries • CEDAW – ratified by Peru and Uganda • ILO 169 – ratified by Peru National: • Uganda forest policy and law - gender equity for tenure security and participation; • Peru forest and regional government laws - equity and social inclusion; • Indonesia consultative assembly decree – gender justice BUT in all cases: o Lack specific provisions to put in practice o Women have low participation in the drafting of reforms o Men dominate the formalization/implementation processes Sources: Country studies by Naluwiro, Safitri, Soria
  7. 7. Regime and Reform Types Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys), Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696) Tenure regimes Reform Types Uganda Peru Indonesia # of sites State land designated to/use by communities 1. Collaborative Forest Management 6. HKM Community forests 7. HTR Community plantations 11 State land used by companies 8. Kemitraan 9. Plasma 4 Land owned by communities 2. Community forestry 4. Native communities titled 5. Riverine communities titled 10. Hutan adat 22 Owned by individuals 3. Private forest owners association 4 Unrecognized customary lands Customary lands • Native communities not titled • Riverine communities not titled • Adat / Customary lands 13 Total 16 22 17 54 29% 44% 25% 83% 24% 23% 30% 24% 17%
  8. 8. Who counts as a member of the collective? (Who represents the collective?)  Depends on national law & policy, type of reform or the customary system, or all of the above  Definition of membership status: who is a villager? who can be a user group member? and specifically in the case of gender – is the member, or household representative, the male hh head? Who benefits? Who is the subject of reform?
  9. 9. Forest dependence Uganda: mainly subsistence (firewood, poles and timber) Peru and Indonesia: more diversified (more than 10 products) including subsistence but also extraction of commercial products Extraction of commercially valuable forest products (41% across countries) In Indonesia (45%); Peru (62%); Uganda (15%) Gender and extraction • Both men and women have equal rights to extract resources • Men dominate decisions around forest resources. Results 1. Social differentiation and Forest Dependence Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys) Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696)
  10. 10. Results 1. Gender differentiation and Forest Uses (b) WOMEN MEN
  11. 11. Results 2. Are reforms promoting involvement in Forest Management activities?  Indonesia and Peru: Reforms favor forest management  In Indonesia and Uganda people who are not consider poor are the ones who participate more in management activities.  Indonesia and Uganda: Membership in a local forestry-related organization favors positive perception of tenure security and livelihood improvement; adoption of forest technologies and practices  In Peru: membership influences positive perception on livelihood improvement and improved forest conditions 82% 57% 17% 38% 87% 61% 13% 39% 47% 54% 53% 29% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% No reform Reform No reform Reform Not involved Involved indonesia peru uganda Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys) Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696)
  12. 12. Results 3. Are reforms favoring changes in forest management practices? • In Peru and Uganda women adopt more technologies and practices for protecting, maintaining and improving the forest • BUT forest management related programs involve more men than women Since joining the scheme I have adopted different technologies and practices for protecting, maintaining and improving the forest? Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys) Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696) 46% 60% 20% 25% 72% 75% 9% 10% 35% 9% 9% 2% 19% 14% 18% 18% 1% 26% 16% 27% 48% 18% 20% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Men Women Men Women Men Women Indonesia Peru Uganda No opinion Disagree Neutral Agree
  13. 13. Results 4. Are reforms promoting participation in decision making about forest management? • Participation in decisions is low across countries, for both men and women • Across countries women lack platforms for participating When existing, these are new and rarely related to forests •Peru and Indonesia: involvement in forest management/and participation in meetings influences perception on positive change in livelihoods and forest conditions - for all 3 countries influences adoption of forest technologies and practices. 15% 3% 48% 33% 18% 16%85% 91% 52% 67% 23% 31% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Men Women Men Women Men Women Indonesia Peru Uganda Participated in making rules about forest harvesting No opinion Yes No Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys) Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696)
  14. 14. Results 5. Perception on rules: men vs. women (a) 13% 9% 17% 25% 22% 15% 62% 60% 64% 43% 69% 69% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Men Women Men Women Men Women Indonesia Peru Uganda Are rules about forest use and access clear? Have no opinion Disagree Neutral Agree 17% 10% 20% 37% 25% 12% 56% 55% 54% 38% 60% 67% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Men Women Men Women Men Women Indonesia Peru Uganda Are rules about forest use and access fair? Have no opinion Disagree Neutral Agree Source: Preliminary survey results • Membership and participation in governance is a precondition to ensure women benefit from tenure reforms. Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys) Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696)
  15. 15. Results 6. Perception on rules: poor vs. non-poor(b) 8% 18% 21% 28% 15% 20% 61% 60% 56% 32% 75% 64% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% No poor Poor No poor Poor No poor Poor Indonesia Peru Uganda Are rules about forest resource use and access clear? Have no opinion Disagree Neutral Agree 17% 14% 11% 25% 8% 12% 11% 20% 28% 38% 18% 18% 14% 15% 14% 9% 6% 10% 57% 51% 47% 29% 69% 60% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% No poor Poor No poor Poor No poor Poor Indonesia Peru Uganda Are rules about forest resource access and use fair? Have no opinion Disagree Neutral AgreeSource: Preliminary survey results Sample: 2707 observations (Intra-household surveys) Indonesia (1024), Peru (988) and Uganda (696)
  16. 16. • State interventions in reform design/implementation risk introducing, formalizing and/or perpetuating internal social differentiation. • Specific provisions to account women concerns and needs around forest resources/lands within collectives: • Review institutional mechanisms introduced/formalized by reform – Understanding the collective: Women may not count as “members”, they may not be convened, they may not have the information to participate (Reform design) • Local regulations and arrangements during the formalization of customary systems (Reform design) • Special provisions should address clearly how women should be accounted for to participate effectively during convening processes and all the different steps of implementation (Reform implementation) Conclusions (1)
  17. 17. • Low participation of women in the formulation of access and use rules – Implications on how women/men benefit from reform outcomes. • While women participate in forest management activities – they are poorly represented in decision-making and leadership positions, specially when it comes to decisions around forests (Reform outcomes) • Results clearly demonstrate differences (we still need to explore causes, disaggregate data by reform types, etc.) • Reforms cannot pretend to be “neutral” unless they intend to reinforce differentiation • The state has an obligation to enforce its own laws and the international conventions it has signed Conclusions (2)
  18. 18. cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org THANK YOU¡¡ HTTP://WWW.CIFOR.ORG/GCS-TENURE/

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