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Prof. Lennart Nacke
Université de Waterloo
UX&
Games User Research,
User Experience, and
Flow
Lennart Nacke, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
CC by Lennart Nacke/Flickr
www.hcigames.com, @acagamic, lennart.nacke@acm.org
About me
• Associate Professor
• Director of the HCI Games Group at the University of Waterloo
CC by Liz Henry/Flickr
Body Signals
Electrodermal Activity
• EDA
• Primary index of arousal
• Increased sweat gland activity
• Sympathetic nervous system
Facial Electromyography
• EMG
• Muscle contraction result in electrical activity
• Primary index of hedonic valence
Brow muscle (negative valence)
Periocular muscle (high arousal, positive valence)
Cheek muscle (positive valence)
C3 CMS DRLCz C4
F3 F4
FC5
FC1 FC2 FC6
Fz
Pz
Oz
P4
AF4
Fp2
PO4
O2O1
CP2
F8
T8T7
P8
CP6
PO3
P3
P7
CP1
CP5
AF3
F7
Fp1
Chatrian, G. E., Lettich, E., & Nelson, P. L. (1988). Modified nomenclature for the "10%" electrode system. Journal of
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society, 5(2), 183-186.
Frontal (F)
Parietal (P)
Occipital (O)
Temporal (T)
Central (C)
Odd Numbers Even Numbers
Electroencephalography
Psychophysiological
Inference
• Body and Mind Relations
• One-to-one
• One-to-many
• Many-to-one
• Many-to-many
• Null relations
• Measure operation and activity of
• Muscles
• Nerve cells
• Glands
Csíkszentmihályi’s Flow
Skills HighLow
High
Low
Challenge
Anxiety
Apathy Boredom
Flow
What's Flow?
• Concentration focused on present moment
• Action and consciousness merge
• Self-awareness lost
• Full control over your actions
• Distorted time perception
• The activity is rewarding in itself
Synthesis of Flow Models
Model Effectance Identification Transportation
Mental
Workload
Csiksz.
Action
awareness,
control
Self-awareness
lost
Concentration
time distort.
Jones
Clear goals,
feedback,
control
Self-concern
lost
Effortless
involvement
Task
completion,
focused att.
Cowley
Challenge,
control, clear
goals, feedb.
Identity, self-
awareness
weakened
Immersion
Challenge, less
time perception
Sweetser et al
Challenge,
skills, control,
clear goals, fb
Immersion
Concentration
challenge skills
Biometric Storyboards
• A single User Experience
(UX) graph
• Intended UX
• Actual UX
• Comparison study
(N=24) of different player
testing approaches
Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E. Nacke, John Gregory, Nick Collins, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. 2013. How does it play better?:
exploring user testing and biometric storyboards in games user research. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on
Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '13).ACM, NewYork, NY, USA, 1499-1508. DOI=10.1145/2470654.2466200
Repidly
• Online tool to
review experience
• Rapid evaluation
• Annotate videos
and physiological
signals
Bachelor’sThesis project from Mike Schaekermann
Repidly
• Easy to associate
game events with
physiological
events
• Rapid annotation
Bachelor’sThesis project from Mike Schaekermann
Player Data Visualization
• Mixed visualization of qualitative and quantitative
player data overlaid on top of a level
• The overall hue of the paths conveys areas with
high (B and C) and low (A) player arousal
Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Günter Wallner, Graham McAllister, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Unified visualization of
quantitative and qualitative playtesting data. In CHI '14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing
Systems (CHI EA '14).ACM, NewYork, NY, USA, 1363-1368. DOI=10.1145/2559206.2581224
DEVELOPER GUIDELINES
1. Use visual experience representations whenever
possible.
2. Give players functionality to annotate their own
experience, physiological or otherwise.
3. Set individual threshold markers when trying to track
down emotional moments.
4. Tie player performance to spatial player
information and virtual locations to improve design.
DEVELOPER GUIDELINES
5. When researching game flow, simplify the
dimensions to facilitate experience coding.
6. Built tools that provide quick and actionable
insights, do not overemphasize theory.
7. Allow user researchers to drill down deep into
your data at points of particular interest.
8. Facilitate inter-developer collaboration, especially
between games user research and game design.
Thank you
Contact me at…
len@uwaterloo.ca
@acagamic (Twitter)
www.hcigames.com
uwaterloo.ca/games-institute/
www.immerse-network.com

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Jeux vidéo et expérience utilisateur

  • 1. jeux vidéo Prof. Lennart Nacke Université de Waterloo UX&
  • 2. Games User Research, User Experience, and Flow Lennart Nacke, Ph.D. Associate Professor CC by Lennart Nacke/Flickr www.hcigames.com, @acagamic, lennart.nacke@acm.org
  • 3. About me • Associate Professor • Director of the HCI Games Group at the University of Waterloo
  • 4. CC by Liz Henry/Flickr Body Signals
  • 5. Electrodermal Activity • EDA • Primary index of arousal • Increased sweat gland activity • Sympathetic nervous system
  • 6. Facial Electromyography • EMG • Muscle contraction result in electrical activity • Primary index of hedonic valence Brow muscle (negative valence) Periocular muscle (high arousal, positive valence) Cheek muscle (positive valence)
  • 7. C3 CMS DRLCz C4 F3 F4 FC5 FC1 FC2 FC6 Fz Pz Oz P4 AF4 Fp2 PO4 O2O1 CP2 F8 T8T7 P8 CP6 PO3 P3 P7 CP1 CP5 AF3 F7 Fp1 Chatrian, G. E., Lettich, E., & Nelson, P. L. (1988). Modified nomenclature for the "10%" electrode system. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society, 5(2), 183-186. Frontal (F) Parietal (P) Occipital (O) Temporal (T) Central (C) Odd Numbers Even Numbers Electroencephalography
  • 8. Psychophysiological Inference • Body and Mind Relations • One-to-one • One-to-many • Many-to-one • Many-to-many • Null relations • Measure operation and activity of • Muscles • Nerve cells • Glands
  • 9.
  • 11. What's Flow? • Concentration focused on present moment • Action and consciousness merge • Self-awareness lost • Full control over your actions • Distorted time perception • The activity is rewarding in itself
  • 12. Synthesis of Flow Models Model Effectance Identification Transportation Mental Workload Csiksz. Action awareness, control Self-awareness lost Concentration time distort. Jones Clear goals, feedback, control Self-concern lost Effortless involvement Task completion, focused att. Cowley Challenge, control, clear goals, feedb. Identity, self- awareness weakened Immersion Challenge, less time perception Sweetser et al Challenge, skills, control, clear goals, fb Immersion Concentration challenge skills
  • 13.
  • 14. Biometric Storyboards • A single User Experience (UX) graph • Intended UX • Actual UX • Comparison study (N=24) of different player testing approaches Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E. Nacke, John Gregory, Nick Collins, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. 2013. How does it play better?: exploring user testing and biometric storyboards in games user research. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '13).ACM, NewYork, NY, USA, 1499-1508. DOI=10.1145/2470654.2466200
  • 15. Repidly • Online tool to review experience • Rapid evaluation • Annotate videos and physiological signals Bachelor’sThesis project from Mike Schaekermann
  • 16. Repidly • Easy to associate game events with physiological events • Rapid annotation Bachelor’sThesis project from Mike Schaekermann
  • 17. Player Data Visualization • Mixed visualization of qualitative and quantitative player data overlaid on top of a level • The overall hue of the paths conveys areas with high (B and C) and low (A) player arousal Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Günter Wallner, Graham McAllister, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2014. Unified visualization of quantitative and qualitative playtesting data. In CHI '14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA '14).ACM, NewYork, NY, USA, 1363-1368. DOI=10.1145/2559206.2581224
  • 18. DEVELOPER GUIDELINES 1. Use visual experience representations whenever possible. 2. Give players functionality to annotate their own experience, physiological or otherwise. 3. Set individual threshold markers when trying to track down emotional moments. 4. Tie player performance to spatial player information and virtual locations to improve design.
  • 19. DEVELOPER GUIDELINES 5. When researching game flow, simplify the dimensions to facilitate experience coding. 6. Built tools that provide quick and actionable insights, do not overemphasize theory. 7. Allow user researchers to drill down deep into your data at points of particular interest. 8. Facilitate inter-developer collaboration, especially between games user research and game design.
  • 20. Thank you Contact me at… len@uwaterloo.ca @acagamic (Twitter) www.hcigames.com uwaterloo.ca/games-institute/ www.immerse-network.com