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Sustainability and open practices

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Pre- and in-service CALL teacher education

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Sustainability and open practices

  1. 1. WHERE ARE THEY NOW? SUSTAINABILITY AND OPEN PRACTICES IN PRE- AND IN-SERVICE CALL TEACHER EDUCATION SHONA WHYTE EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18
  2. 2. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 TEACHER EDUCATION & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ▸ future-proof CALL: sustainability and open practices ▸ limited uptake of new pedagogical practices in technology- mediated practice (CALL) and open education resources (OER) ▸ “sustainability may depend on whether teachers perceive and practice agency in all the processes involved” 
 (Reinhardt 2016) ▸ investigate impact of teacher education among teachers “in the wild” (Little & Thorne 2017)
  3. 3. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 What kinds of practices and resources do language teachers typically use? What factors seem to influence teacher adoption of specific practices? What challenges and opportunities do these language teachers identify?
  4. 4. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES in-service (continuing professional development) pre-service (initial teacher education) ITILT IWB PROJECT ITILT 2 MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES MASTERS IN TEACHING LANGUAGES (ENGLISH) UNIVERSITY OF NICE WORKSHOPS WEBINARS
  5. 5. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18
  6. 6. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 select video examples and create searchable repository visit classes and provide techno- pedagogical support iTILT http://itilt.eu 2011-13 IWB collect data: ‣ video recordings, ‣ learner interviews, ‣ video-stimulated recall with teachers design and implement teacher education modules ‣ 267 video clips ‣ 44 teachers ‣ 81 lessons ‣ 7 languages ‣ 4 educational levels searchable repository
  7. 7. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 ANALYSING VIDEO CLIPS OF CALL PRACTICE ▸ Purpose: repository search, teacher education research ▸ Question: Does the use of interactive classroom technology support 1. greater technological interactivity (exploitation of new digital affordances)? 2. more active interactional engagement (more communicative activities)? 3. more task-oriented teaching (meaning focus, free language use, outcome)?
  8. 8. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 DIMENSIONS CATEGORIES 1 Technological interactivity and language teaching objectives 
 Whyte, Beauchamp & Alexander 2014; Whyte, Cutrim Schmid, van Hazebrouck- Thompson & Oberhofer 2014 • Teacher and learner roles • Digital affordances • Language teaching objectives 2 Interactional engagement: teacher versus learner-centred activities Whyte, Cutrim Schmid & Beauchamp 2014 • Drill • Display • Simulation • Communication 3 Task orientation (TBLT) Whyte & Alexander 2014; Whyte 2015 • Focus on meaning • Vocabulary and grammar not pre-taught • non-linguistic task outcome (not language exercise)
  9. 9. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 1 TECHNOLOGICAL INTERACTIVITY & TEACHING OBJECTIVES ITILT.EU > Quick search
  10. 10. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 1 TECHNOLOGICAL INTERACTIVITY & TEACHING OBJECTIVES • Teacher and learner roles • Digital affordances • Language teaching objectives 44 teachers, 267 video clips
 • mostly individual learners at IWB, and teacher-fronted activities • low-level interaction with IWB drag/drop or hide/reveal • balance between 4 skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and subskills or cultural objectives
  11. 11. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 2 INTERACTIONAL ENGAGEMENT drill display simulation communication
  12. 12. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 2 INTERACTIONAL ENGAGEMENT • Drill • Display • Simulation • Communication 11 French and German EFL teachers at primary and secondary level, 54 video clips
 • 3 times more drill and display than simulation and communication • primary 73% drill, lower secondary 60% display, upper secondary 37% display and 26% communication
  13. 13. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 3 TASK ORIENTATION (TBLT) • focus on meaning • vocabulary and grammar not pre- taught • non-linguistic task outcome (not language exercise) 9 French EFL teachers at primary, secondary, and university level, 56 video clips • only 7/56 activities from 3/9 teachers met all TBLT criteria • most task-oriented: primary teachers/educator • least task-oriented: lower secondary teachers
  14. 14. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 a somewhat conservative or cautious approach to IWB use for language teaching, with teachers focusing on a limited repertoire of basic functions such as dragging and dropping images to fulfill relatively circumscribed language learning objectives (vocabulary, pronunciation, receptive skills), often with a teaching method involving an individual learner working at the IWB before the class Whyte, Beauchamp, & Hillier 2012
  15. 15. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 ITILT I CONCLUSIONS IWB-mediated teaching technological interactivity (exploitation of new digital affordances) active interactional engagement (more communicative activities) task-oriented teaching (meaning focus, free language use, outcome) x x x NEW STUDY TO 
 •update technologies •improve impact of techno-pedagogical support compare with previous dataset on same three dimensions
  16. 16. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 iTILT http://itilt.eu 2011-13 IWB iTILT 2 http://www.itilt2.eu 2014-17 mobile, videoconferencing select video examples and create searchable repository collect data: ‣ video recordings, ‣ learner interviews, ‣ video-stimulated recall with teachers ‣ 267 video clips ‣ 81 lessons ‣ 44 teachers ‣ 7 languages ‣ 4 educational levels pedagogical support in design and implementation of class activities ‣ 76 video clips ‣ 31 tasks ‣ 22 teachers ‣ 4 languages ‣ 3 educational levels task-based teacher education module
  17. 17. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 1 TECHNOLOGICAL INTERACTIVITY & OBJECTIVES ITILT 1 44 teachers, 267 clips ITILT 2 22 teachers, 76 clips • Teacher and learner roles • Digital affordances • Language teaching objectives • teacher-fronted activities • low-level interaction • 4 skills and subskills • 86% groups of learners, only 16% teacher alone • more active affordances (76%) versus input (43%) • listening & speaking (71-83%), less grammar (21%)
  18. 18. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 2 INTERACTIONAL ENGAGEMENT ITILT 1 11 teachers, 54 clips ITILT 2 22 teachers, 76 clips • Drill • Display • Simulation • Communi- cation • predominance of drill and display • more communication at secondary level • more active engagement at all levels • less drilling than ITILT 1 (though more primary classes) • active engagement increases with educational level
  19. 19. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 2 INTERACTIONAL ENGAGEMENT
  20. 20. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 3 TASK ORIENTATION (TBLT) ITILT 1 9 teachers, 56 clips ITILT 2 22 teachers, 76 clips • focus on meaning • vocabulary and grammar NOT pre-taught • non-linguistic task outcome (not language exercise) • few activities/teachers met all TBLT criteria • most task-oriented: primary teachers/ educator • least task-oriented: lower secondary teachers • median score 2 (max = 3, min = 0) • variability • L2 • country • educational level • technology
  21. 21. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 What kinds of practices and resources do language teachers typically use? What factors seem to influence teacher adoption of specific practices? What challenges and opportunities do these language teachers identify?
  22. 22. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 ITILT 2 ADVANCES PEDAGOGY REPOSITORY more effective exploitation of digital affordances more coherent and informative video examples of classroom practice more active engagement of learners adaptation of coding to new corpus (different technologies, teaching method) greater adoption of TBLT approach advantage of mobile technology and pedagogical support website designed for browsing instead of searching
  23. 23. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 ITILT 2 ISSUES PEDAGOGY REPOSITORY gratuitous pedagogical contextualisation; artificial tasks coding difficulties (outcomes, objectives) due to missing information or number of activities per clip difficulties regarding task outcome and pre-teaching expressions inclusion of examples without technology (task preparation) and in L1 (tech demo) gratuitous use or overuse of technology to replicate traditional activities relevance to young learners of display vs simulation vs communication limits of teacher uptake of pedagogical and technological recommendations limits of quantitative and qualitative analytical frameworks
  24. 24. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 What kinds of practices and resources do language teachers typically use? What factors seem to influence teacher adoption of specific practices? What challenges and opportunities do these language teachers identify?
  25. 25. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES in-service (continuing professional development) pre-service (initial teacher education) ITILT IWB PROJECT ITILT 2 MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES MASTERS IN TEACHING LANGUAGES (ENGLISH) UNIVERSITY OF NICE WORKSHOPS WEBINARS
  26. 26. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION MASTERS IN TEACHING ENGLISH (MASTER MEEF) ▸ 1st year: disciplinary courses (English studies - language and culture), classroom observation; national teaching entrance exams ▸ 2nd year: teaching placements with tutors, teacher education courses; thesis ▸ classroom research WORKSHOPS & WEBINARS ‣ language teaching with technologies ‣ open educational practices: research Whyte (2014, 2016) ‣ participant questionnaire
  27. 27. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 WHERE ARE THEY NOW? LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION SURVEY ▸ 20 minute online questionnaire (Google forms) ▸ project and programme participants ▸ developed from pre-course surveys ▸ technology and pedagogy ▸ teaching activities & lesson plans 1. TEACHING BACKGROUND (12) 2. TEACHING PHILOSOPHY (5) 3. OPPORTUNITIES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING (7) 4. DIFFICULTIES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING (3) 5. PARTICIPANT DETAILS (5)
  28. 28. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 MAIN PATTERNS IN RESPONSES TO DATE (N=23) ▸ French lower secondary EFL teachers, Masters degree, 26-30, 3-5 years experience ▸ independent digital users (Europass) ▸ CLT and TBLT approaches yet fairly conservative views of language learning, some disagreement regarding language teaching (Lightbown & Spada items) ▸ equipped with single computer, internet, projector; use VLC and Google apps, online resources (YouTube, audio, Quizlet, dictionaries/grammar reference) ▸ find materials online, but don’t share and only interact with known colleagues ▸ keen to motivate learners and provide individualised feedback ▸ discouraged by technical problems with technology and peer judgement in open practice
  29. 29. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 SOME CONTRADICTIONS … ▸ 74% claim to use CLT or TBLT methods ▸ 48% believe errors should be corrected immediately to avoid the formation of bad habits ▸ 78% aim to teach simple before complex grammar rules ▸ materials indicate grammar syllabus (vocabulary and reading comprehension exercises)
  30. 30. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 CONCLUSIONS & NEXT STEPS ▸ CALL teacher education can support pedagogical transformation (TBLT) through open practices, particularly in structured funded projects ▸ challenges include ▸ understanding and implementing effective pedagogical and technological choices (gratuitous interactivity, artificial pretexts for tasks, preference for traditional pedagogical exercises) ▸ reluctance to share resources beyond local communities of practice ▸ analysis of questionnaire data to compare project, workshop and semester course participants ▸ new focus on university teaching: EU project SHOUT4HE 
 SHaring Open practices Using Technology for Higher Education
  31. 31. EuroCALL 2018 Jyväskylä, Finland wp.me/p28EmH-19B 24/08/18 WHERE ARE THEY NOW? SUSTAINABILITY AND OPEN PRACTICES IN PRE- AND IN- SERVICE CALL TEACHER EDUCATION Shona Whyte @whyshona shonawhyte.wordpress.com wp.me/p28EmH-19B

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