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La Charpente Bois

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exposé de master génie civil sur la charpente bois. type de bois et conception

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La Charpente Bois

  1. 1. La charpente bois www.jexpoz.com
  2. 2. sommaire <ul><li>Type de charpente </li></ul><ul><li>Calcul de section </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sollicitation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts internes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conception et montage </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  3. 3. 3 types de charpentes: <ul><li>La charpente traditionnelle </li></ul><ul><li>La charpente industrielle </li></ul><ul><li>La charpente en lamellé-collé </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  4. 4. La charpente traditionnelle <ul><li>Elle composée d’une ou plusieurs fermes où reposeront pannes, chevrons et le lattage afin de soutenir la couverture </li></ul><ul><li>Son utilisation est dédiée principalement pour l’habitat car elle permet d’utiliser les combles </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  5. 5. La charpente industrielle <ul><li>Elle se compose de plusieurs éléments appelés fermettes jouant a la fois le rôle des chevrons </li></ul><ul><li>Son domaine d’utilisation est plutôt les bâtiments industrielle car son coût est faible et sa pose plus rapide </li></ul><ul><li>Inconvénient : comble inutilisable </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  6. 6. La charpente lamellé-collé <ul><li>Composée d’arc(s) ou de portique(s) d’un ou de plusieurs éléments, et de pannes </li></ul><ul><li>Essentiellement pour des grandes portées (gymnase, pont,..)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Inconvénient: relativement onéreux </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  7. 7. Arc ou portique www.jexpoz.com
  8. 8. Calcul des sections <ul><li>La charpente ne doit pas être le plus robuste possible mais aussi résistante que nécessaire. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sollicitations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts internes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  9. 9. Les sollicitations <ul><li>Charges permanentes : poids propre de la structure et équipements fixes </li></ul><ul><li>Pannes, chevrons et lattes = 150N/m2 </li></ul><ul><li>Tuiles sèches = 250N/m2 </li></ul><ul><li>Tuiles humides = 300N/m2 </li></ul><ul><li>Charges variables : neige et vent </li></ul><ul><li>neige : 1 cm de neige = 30N/m² </li></ul><ul><li>vent : 150 km/h = de 300 à 700 N/m² suivant l’orientation du bâtiment </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  10. 10. www.jexpoz.com
  11. 11. Les efforts internes <ul><li>Ces efforts internes sont appelés « contraintes » </li></ul><ul><li>3 contraintes agissent dans les membrures et les assemblages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contrainte de compression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contrainte de traction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contrainte de cisaillement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  12. 12. Moment fléchissant Flambage: www.jexpoz.com
  13. 13. Conception et montage <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conception </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Montage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  14. 14. 1.Conception 1 ère étape: Utilisation de logiciel de DAO comme AUTOCAD 2 ème étape: Commande du débit de bois nécessaire à la scierie 3 ème étape: « Taillage » des différents éléments www.jexpoz.com
  15. 15. 2.Montage <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sécurité </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manutention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pose des éléments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  16. 16. La sécurité Toutes les précautions doivent être prises pour rendre le travail des ouvriers le plus sûr possible. Il est aujourd’hui obligatoire de disposer d’un échafaudage pour empêcher la chute des objets… et des ouvriers. www.jexpoz.com
  17. 17. Levage et manutention <ul><li>Les fermettes industrielles sont conçues pour travailler dans le plan vertical. Les manutentions et le transport s’effectuent donc à plat. </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  18. 18. Pose des éléments de charpente <ul><li>La sablière </li></ul><ul><li>Les pannes </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  19. 19. <ul><li>Les chevrons </li></ul><ul><li>Le lattage </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com
  20. 20. Montage d’une ferme www.jexpoz.com
  21. 21. bibliographie <ul><li>« La fabrication du bâtiment -Le gros œuvre- », édition Eyrolles </li></ul><ul><li>« La technique du bâtiment – Tout corps d’état », édition le moniteur </li></ul><ul><li>Cours de charpente du Bureau International du Travail par Paul Gut </li></ul><ul><li>Site : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.charpente-bois.com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.Ageka.com </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entreprise Mécabois </li></ul>www.jexpoz.com

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