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Robots:
De la science fiction
à la réalité
DAVID BENSOUSSAN
Un robot ?


Machine



Autonome ou contrôlé



Qui agit



Avec un but
Dans l’antiquité


Premières horloges



Croyances



Automates basiques



But guerrier
Au moyen-âge


Machines de guerre



Mannequins de combat



Plans et théories



Problèmes éthiques et religieux
Renaissance et Temps modernes


Le robot de De Vinci



Horlogerie de pointe



Loisir noble (Louis XVI)



Serrurerie


Epoque d’or de l’horlogerie complexe



Maîtrise de l’électricité



Frankenstein (1818)



Nikola Tesla invente la “téléautomatique”
(1896)



Années 1920 : Pause
Asimov : père de la robotique


Invention du mot “robotique”



1942 : Runaround (Isaac Asimov)
3 lois de la robotique



Et c’est là que tout commence…
Asimov : Lois de la robotique


Un robot ne peut porter atteinte à un être
humain, ni, restant passif, permettre qu'un être
humain soit exposé au danger.



Un robot doit obéir aux ordres que lui donne un
être humain, sauf si de tels ordres entrent en
conflit avec la Première loi.



Un robot doit protéger son existence tant que
cette protection n'entre pas en conflit avec la
Première ou la Deuxième loi.
Robo-Ethique


Notion ancienne : 1943



Formalisation en 2009 : “Artificial Moral Agent”
Un robot qui contrôle tout…


1948, Arthur C. Clarke: “The Sentinel”



1968, Stanley Kubrik: “2001: A space Odyssey”



Robots domotiques intelligents : 2000
La technologie devient bloquante…
Des robots pour tous


Seymour Papert - “Mindstorms:

Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas” :
1980


Lego Mindstorms : 2001



Arduino : 2005
Robots guerriers


Culture : antiquité



Terminator : 1984



Actuellement en développement
Télépathie


Asimov : 1985



2008 : Envoi de commandes



Aujourd’hui encore : réception de résultat
Des robots auto-réparateurs


Short-Circuit : 1986



RepRap : 2006
Et depuis 2006…


Robotique de hobby



Robotique scientifique



Intelligence Artificielle
Robotique de hobby


Kits



Arduino



Do It Yourself
Robotique scientifique


Fais des hypothèses



Réalise des expériences



Interprète les résultats
Intelligence Artificielle


Impression de conscience de soi



Compréhension de ses raisonnements
Domaines


Industrie



Robotique médicale



Exploration …
Industrie


Milieux à risque



Objets lourds



Assemblage de précision
Exploration


Robots sous marins



Exploration spatiale
Robotique médicale


Assistance



Prothèses



Simulation
Robotique domestique


Tâches ménagères



Se concentrer
Imitation de la nature


Guépard



Insectes



Poissons …
Et plus tard ?


Souhaits



Attentes

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Histoire de la robotique

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. 1300 – 1600 environDe vinci => 1495. Debout, assis, visière, brasPoulies & cables. Refait en 1950 quandilsonttrouvé les plans, ilmarchait !
  2. Karel Capek ->concept du robotAsimov: robots et la robotique dans la culture populaire avec sa série de romans « Robot ». Les robots d'Asimov pouvaient «penser». Thème similaire à Karel Capek: Conflit Homme / Robot
  3. Karel Capek ->concept du robotAsimov: robots et la robotique dans la culture populaire avec sa série de romans « Robot ». Les robots d'Asimov pouvaient «penser». Thème similaire à Karel Capek: Conflit Homme / Robot
  4. Adam 2009