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20201208 Gala Conf. Artifactual Affordances In Playful Robotics

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Artifactual Affordances In Playful Robotics. ANR #CreaMaker. #CreaCube task

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20201208 Gala Conf. Artifactual Affordances In Playful Robotics

  1. 1. Artifactual Affordances In Playful Robotics George Kalmpourtzis, Laboratoire d’Innovation et Numérique pour l’Education, Université Côte d’Azur, Nice, France Margarida Romero, Laboratoire d’Innovation et Numérique pour l’Education, Université Côte d’Azur, Nice, France https://creamaker.wordpress.com/
  2. 2. Introduction Aims of this study: An initial analysis for the study of artifactual affordances of participants’ engagement in an Educational Robotics activity : the CreaCube task.
  3. 3. Problem solving in GBL and Educational Robotics The introduction of educational games in learning contexts has been examined through various studies Problem solving has been identified as a key component of game-based learning While engaging into playful problem-solving tasks, in the context of Educational Robotics, learners need to explore the properties of the ER components and use them as factors in their problem-solving process
  4. 4. Educational Robotics and Problem-Solving Learners encounter unfamiliar technologies during playful problem solving Learners confronted with Gulf of Execution (the difference between what learners think these artifacts can help them achieve in a game and how these artifacts really work) By exploring the properties of different robotic components, learners attempt to solve the playful problem-solving situation (execution bridge) Players evaluate the effect of their actions on the ER components (evaluation bridge)
  5. 5. Artifactual affordances in education Affordances: affordances as intrinsic characteristics of objects, whether they are perceived or not by animals or humans (Gibson, 1977) Norman (1999) makes a distinction between perceived and real affordances In the scope of education, affordances have been examined through various studies. Different types of affordances have been identified (Kirschner et. al, 2004): • Technological affordances: what learning technologies afford • Social affordances: social-cultural interaction, relevant to the learning context • Educational affordances, indicate how resource attributes could be used in a learning context In playful Educational Robotics tasks, game elements of robots provide artifactual affordances, which have a situated meaning, while learners try to identify the relation between the features of an artifact and its potential application in a given situation.
  6. 6. CreaCube, a playful activity with modular robotics The CreaCube activity aims to engage players in a playful problem-solving challenge. The materials and their capabilities are unknown to the player-learner. As a result, players need to engage in the exploration of the artifactual affordances. Each cube affords different outcomes (energy, movement, distance sensing, direction).
  7. 7. CreaCube activity objective The aim of a activity was to build a vehicle made of four pieces moving autonomously from a red point (point A) to the black point (point B) A B
  8. 8. CreaCube, a playful activity with modular robotics Since affordances are not initially known to player-learners, they are required to engage in the playful activity of exploration (trial and error interactions) as a key behaviour in perceiving the affordances.
  9. 9. CreaCube, a playful activity with modular robotics Learner-players should interact with all robotic cubes to discover the artifactual affordances they offer, and then assemble the four cubes into a figure which will allow them to succeed in the playful challenge.
  10. 10. Methodology • The aim of this study is the identification and analysis of artifactual affordances in the scope of a playful problem-solving task. • Individual playful problem-solving sessions were conducted in which the CreaCube playful robotic task was presented to: • 15 participants • of 25-50 years old • One facilitator would arrange the different tangible elements on the desk when necessary, while the instructions were provided by an audio message to all participants • All participants heard the same recorded instructions message and were presented with the same set of four different robotic modular cubes
  11. 11. Data collection and analysis The recordings of the sessions were later analyzed to identify what types of affordances were perceived by participants during the sessions. A qualitative research methodology was applied, where the analysis took place in an iterative manner in two passes, including an open coding phase, where preliminary thematic categories were proposed and an axial coding phase.
  12. 12. RESULTS
  13. 13. Types of affordances identified (1/2) Tinkerability: being able to tinker, hence experimenting through a divergent way of problem solving, is defined as tinkering Usability: the intuitiveness and ease of use of different objects • Perceptibility: describes how easily the individual characteristics and elements of cubes are perceived by players • Operability: objects’ ability to be operable in the context which they need to be used and by the players that use them • Understandability: attributes’ ability to be understood (even if object attributes may be perceived, they may not necessarily be understood)
  14. 14. Types of affordances identified (2/2) Aesthetics: different objects provide a different perception on how they can be used (CreaCube cubes had different colors and object attributes, each of which gave a hint to players) Playability: the fact that an item can afford play is not always obvious to players if they engage in the CreaCube task with a performance goal instead of a playful attitude Feedback:The use of the audio recording message as well as the lack of hints on behalf of the facilitator show that feedback (or lack of feedback), in the scope of CreaCube did play a key role in playful problem-solving processes involving tangible robotic components
  15. 15. Thank you! George Kalmpourtzis & Margarida Romero gkalmpourtzis@playcompass.com More on the ANR CreaMaker project and the #CreaCube task https://creamaker.wordpress.com/