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Profitability of PES exists compared to existing landuses, risks, price fluctuations, expected future returns, legality of use, security of land tenure etc.
Public schemes (e.g. in Costa Rica, Mexico, China, South Africa, Zambia). Public schemes tend to be generally larger in scope and have the state providing legitimacy can become overloaded with side objectives Use-restricting schemes e.g., setting aside protected habitat. Landowners are paid for their conservation opportunity cost, plus other project implementation costs are less flexible vis-à-vis targeting of strategic ES sellers tend to be less efficient in securing additional ES provision