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NCD. — 07. Civil resistance against terrorism (2011-2016)

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NCD. — 07. Civil resistance against terrorism (2011-2016)

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NCD. — 07. Civil resistance against terrorism (2011-2016)

  1. 1. Étienne Godinot Translation : Claudia McKenny Engström .26.06.2017 Slides « Towards a nonviolent civil defence » Diaporamas n° 3 Resistances against dictatorships, coups d’état and terrorism 3.4 - Civil resistance against terrorism
  2. 2. Slides n° 4 Resistances against dictatorships, coups d’état and terrorism 4.3 - Civil resistance against terrorism Contents • Norway, July 2011 • Belgium, May 2014 • France, January 2015 • Denmark, February 2015 • Tunisia, April 2015
  3. 3. Slides n° 4 Resistances against dictatorships, coups d’état and terrorism 4.3 - Civil resistance against terrorism - 1 July 2011: Civil resistance after terrorist attacks in Norway Photo : Flowers in homage to victims on central square in Oslo.
  4. 4. Two deadly attacks On 22nd July 2011, at 3. 26 pm, a bomb explodes in Regjeringskvartalet, the governmental quarter in Oslo, outside the office of State minister Jens Stoltenberg and other governmental buildings. The explosion kills 8 and wounds 15. 2 hours later, in a youth camp organised by the Youth Labour League (AUF) of the Norwegian Labour Party (AP), on the island of Utøya, a sniper disguised as a police officer opens fire on the campers, killing 79 and wounding 33. Photos : - Explosion in governmental quarter - Victims being repatriated from Utøya Island.
  5. 5. An extreme-right nationalist The author of the attacks, Anders Behring Breivik, 32, had resigned from the Progress Party, right-wing movement he believed was too “politically correct”. In a manifest published on the internet just before the attack, he developed his support to a “cultural conservatism”, to ultra- nationalism, to right-wing populism, to islamophobia, to Zionism, anti-feminism and white nationalism. He denounces “cultural Marxists”, who, according to him, let Islam colonise Europe. After his trial (16-24 August 2012), during which two psychological analysis conclude in two contradictory results, he is sentenced to 21 years imprisonment without remission, the maximum sentence in Norway.
  6. 6. Media calls to not give in to fear In an editorial published the following day, on 23rd July 2011, the newspaper Dagbladet called Norwegians to not give in to fear and to the temptation of over security. “We do not want a Norway that increases restrictions on free movement, more uniforms and thus, more intrusion in our private lives (…). If that were the case, that would mean terrorists have won. We want a Norway grounded on values of freedom and equality, the same values so important to those who gathered on Utøya, and which are so important to most citizens of this country (…). Police now has to investigate and prevent criminal acts, and it is for Courts to judge them. Our task is to make sure they do so within the legal framework that is ours.”
  7. 7. The Prime Minister : “We will never give up our values” A few hours after the massacre, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg declared in a press conference : “ I have a message for the authors and those standing behind them (…). You will not destroy our democracy and our efforts to make the world a better place (…). This evening and tonight, we are going to take care of each other, talk together and stay together. Tomorrow, we will show the world how strong Norwegian democracy is (…). We will never stop defending our values. We must show our society is ready to face this challenge, and that the answer to violence is even more democracy and humanity, never naivety. We owe it to the victims and their families.”
  8. 8. “ Each one of us can defend freedom ” The day after the massacre, Jens Stoltenberg declares : “We have three things to do : - help those who are in mourning; - watch out for all signs of extremism. We must counter hate with arguments, help those who have lost themselves, oppose those who want to use violence, confront them with all the strength of democracy; - create the conditions to live a safe life. We need you. Each and every one of us shall take the responsibility of defending democracy. Each and every one of can defend our freedom. Photos: Jens Stoltenberg in compassion with the victims.
  9. 9. The King : “ Freedom is stronger than fear ” The day after the massacre, King Harald V declares : “ It is when our nation is put to the test (…) that solidarity and courage of the Norwegian people are revealed (…). I firmly believe that freedom is stronger than fear; I firmly believe that our Norway is a democracy and open society. I firmly believe in our capacity to live together in peace in our country ”.
  10. 10. Dignified demonstrations On 25th July, demonstrations in homage to the victims are organised across the country. In Oslo, almost 150 000 people take part in the “rose march”, which prolongs itself until dusk into a “candle march”. Gatherings take place in other cities too.
  11. 11. Oslo Mayor : “ More generosity, more tolerance, more democracy ” Fabian Stang, Oslo Mayor and member of the Conservative party, declares : “ No call for hatred, no lynching, no misconduct. People have transformed pain into power, anger into will, the will to not let a murderer destroy their society (…). Together, we will punish him. And his punishment will be more generosity, more tolerance, more democracy ”.
  12. 12. Resistances against dictatorships, coups d’état and terrorism 4.3 - Civil resistance against terrorism - 2 May 2014: Civil Resistance in Belgium after terrorist attacks against Jewish Museum in Brussels Photo : Flowers in front of the museum after the attack.
  13. 13. “ A perverse and lost young man ” On 24th May in Brussels, a man enters the Jewish Museum in Belgium, on Minimes Street. He kills 4 people: an Israeli couple, a museum staff and a French volunteer. On 30th May, the author, Mehdi Nemmouche, is arrested in Marseille in possession of military weapons. French-Algerian, placed at 3 month old in foster care, he has already been sentenced several times. He radicalised in prison and went to Syria, where he fought with ISIS in the civil war. French journalist Nicolas Hénin, whose gaoler he had been from July to December 2013, describes him as a “ perverse and lost young man ”. He was extradited and imprisoned in Belgium.
  14. 14. Public and civil society reaction The day following the shooting, hundreds of people, including Belgian politicians, gather close to Brussels Court house. On the same day, Brussels population, including rabbi Pevzner, march before the museum all day long, where they leave flowers. On 27th May, rights before the European summit, many heads of State and governments pay homage to the victims at the museum. On 30th May, a tribute is read in all secondary schools in Brussels, at 11.30. The Municipal Council sits at the Dachsbeck high school reading. Photos : - Flowers in homage to the victims in front of the museum - Mayor Yvan Mayeur and council at Dachsbeck high school.
  15. 15. Brussels Mayor : “ Resist the logic of hatred ” Socialist Mayor Yvan Mayeur declares : “That life in our neighbourhoods is suddenly stopped by murder concerns us all. Faced with such an anti-Semite terrorist attack, we must resist the logic of hatred, that undermines confidence in democracy’s capacity to protect us. Democracy remains the best protection against banalisation of violence”. He finishes his speech quoting Martin Luther King : “Nonviolence is a powerful and just weapon. Indeed, it is a weapon unique in history, which cuts without wounding and ennobles the man who wields it.” Photos : - Yvan Mayeur, Brussels Mayor - Gathering at Dachsbeck high school.
  16. 16. Resistances against dictatorships, coups d’état and terrorism 4.3 - Civil resistance against terrorism 3 January 2015: civil resistance in France and the world after terrorist attacks in Paris Photo : Demonstrators on Place de la Nation in Paris, 11th January 2015.
  17. 17. The 7, 8 and 9th January Slaughters in Paris On 7th January, two men, French fundamentalists (photo below left) enter newspaper Charlie Hebdo offices in Paris, heavily armed, and open fire. They kill 12 : journalists, policemen, other staff. The attack is claimed by al-Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). At the same time, a coordinated action led by their accomplice Amedi Koulibaly, who assassinates a young police officer in Montrouge on 8th January, and then kills 4 of his hostages on 9th January, in a Jewish kosher supermarket near the Porte de Vincennes, in Paris. Les frères Saïd et Chérif Kouachi Harith al-Nadhari (AQPA)
  18. 18. Social networks, Head of State In total, 20 are killed (including the 3 terrorists), and 20 are wounded. Many solidarity movements take place spontaneously on social movements with the hashtag “Je suis Charlie” (“I am Charlie”), on twitter and Facebook shortly after the attack. The President of the French Republic, François Hollande, declares 8th March National Mourning Day, and increases the Vigipirate plan. Calling for national unity, he meets former Presidents and representatives of political parties. François Hollande meets with Nicolas Sarkozy → ← 6 of the journalist victims.
  19. 19. Religious representatives, media and companies Religious (Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist) representatives, following the Presidents declaration, pronounce a common declaration. Flags are flown half-mast during 3 days, the bells of Notre Dame Cathedral ring. Logos of television channels are covered with a black ribbon. In companies, moments of silence are organised. 72 French and International newspapers pay homage to Charlie Hebdo in their own title. Le Monde
  20. 20. Buildings and public equipment Calls for solidarity are launched on Internet, namely via Avaaz. Shops, buildings, advertisement panels, motorway signs, all bear the words “I am Charlie”.
  21. 21. Demonstrations On 10th January, demonstrations take place in many French towns, gathering over 700 000 people. On 11th January, 44 heads of State and Government march in Paris during the “Republican March”. Almost 4 million people demonstrate all over France, led by their political representatives; 1,5 million in Paris. Many demonstrations take place all over the world. Demonstration in Marseille …in Paris
  22. 22. National cohesion Demonstrators acclaim police forces, emergency and rescue services. The national cohesion in that moment and mobilisation of all representatives of society in France and abroad illustrate how defence against aggression and barbaric actions should be organised : nonviolent coordinated action of public authorities and civil society.
  23. 23. Learning the lesson and taking necessary measures The civil spirit and great momentum must be continued notwithstanding analysis and lucidity. Lessons shall be learnt and measures taken, in diverse domains : - security measures (surveillance of people suspected of fundamentalism, border control, etc.) - foreign policy, namely towards regimes training and financing terrorists - prison services, avoiding they become crime schools (photo above) - schools, education in families - integration and employment in deprived areas (photo below)
  24. 24. Resistances against dictatorships, coups d’état and terrorism 4.3 - Civil resistance against terrorism - 4 February 2015 : civil resistance in Denmark after terrorist attacks Photo : Flowers in homage to the victims in front of Copenhagen Synagogue
  25. 25. Two attacks, 2 killed, 5 wounded Le 14 février 2015, à 15 h 33, des tirs d’armes automatiques sont commis au centre culturel Krudttønden, dans le quartier d’Østerbro à Copenhague, lors d'une conférence publique dont le thème est "Art, blasphème et liberté d'expression", organisée pour rendre hommage aux victimes de l'attentat contre Charlie Hebdo du 7 janvier 2015. La cible principale est l’artiste et caricaturiste suédois Lars Vilks, dont la tête est mise à prix par Abou Omar al-Baghdadi, chef de l'organisation de l'État islamique d'Irak. Un participant est tué, 3 policiers blessés. Le 15 février à 00 h 50, le même assassin tue un membre de la communauté juive et en blesse 2 policiers à la grande synagogue de Copenhague.
  26. 26. The author, “a good boy” who became an extremist The terrorist, Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, Danish citizen of Palestinian origin, is shot down by the police a few hours later after a fire exchange. He comes from a deprived area housing circa 2500 people, 95% immigrants or of immigrant descent. Good student, intelligent and helpful, isolated and distant, testimonies say he could be aggressive, especially under the influence. Known of by police services for acts of violence and possession of armed weapons, he is anti-Semite. His radicalisation started during detention. He swore allegiance to ISIS -Daech Photos : - Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein - ISIS flag
  27. 27. 30 000 demonstrators Thousands of people leave flowers, candles, messages of solidarity for families and victims. The evening of the attacks, 30 000 demonstrators (photo above) pay a silent homage to the victims, determined to not let themselves be impressed by the terrorists and defend their open and solidary society. Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt declares : “ I want to tell all Danish Jews tonight: you are not alone. When others try to terrorise you and separate us, our answer will always be the one of a united community ”. Queen Margaret II (photo below) declares: “ It is important that we stay united and preserve the values Denmark was built on ”.
  28. 28. Prime Minister : “Freedom of the press will be preserved” Helle Thorning-Schmidt, ex-President of Socio-Democratic Party, Prime Minister, declares that Denmark will change nothing to its laws regarding freedom of the press. “ They want to annihilate our freedom of expression, our liberalism and religious equality. This is not a fight between Islam and the West, between Muslims and non-Muslims. This is a fight between the freedom of individuals and obscurantism (…). We must clearly say that is not the Denmark we want. We want to stay united, and we will always fight for our freedom of expression and our democracy (…). Our priority now is to fight against radicalisation of young people. Our response will always be : a united community ”.
  29. 29. Consensus in the press For the conservative newspaper Berlingske, “ all means should be put into action : anti-radicalisation initiatives, efficient information and determined reaction against those who use terrorism against words and caricature ”. The daily paper Politiken, centre-left, states the fight must continue while living normally, as if nothing had happened : “ We must all realise that we are vulnerable with regard to terrorist in a free society, terrorists who do not hesitate to threaten and use violence, and kill (…). No weapon is stronger, faced with extremism, that the daily lives we all lead together ”.
  30. 30. European Jews must stay in Europe Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu declared: “ We say to Jews, brothers and sisters: Israel is your home. We are preparing for mass immigration from Europe ”. Jewish community spokesperson, Jeppe Juhl, declares to AFP that Netanyahu’s call will not be followed. Danish Great Rabbi, Jair Melchior confirms: “ Terrorism is not a reason to flee to Israel (…)/ If, to combat terrorism, we run away, we will take refuge on a desert island ”. Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt reminds that “ the Jewish community has been in Denmark for centuries. It is at home in Denmark, is part of Danish society. We would not be the same without it ”. Photos : - Benyamin Netanayahu, Israeli Prime Minsiter - Jair Melchior, Danish Great Rabbi.