Series: Historical overview of nonviolence
Slides 2
Gandhi
Étienne Godinot
Translation : Claudia McKenny Engström
- 28.05....
Gandhi’s youth
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 - 30 January
1948), Indian political leader, spiritual guide and...
Gandhi in South Africa (1893-1915)
In 1894 he founds the Natal Indian Congress to defend the
rights of Indians in South Af...
Gandhi in South Africa (1893-1915)
The fight for Indians’ and non-White’s rights (Chinese, etc.)
lasts 7 years: strikes, r...
Gandhi’s return to India (1915)
Back in India, Gandhi has become famous. He travels
around the country to encounter the In...
Gandhi’s first actions in India (1915-1919)
Gandhi organises the resistance of the landless farmers,
serfs, indigo growers...
Gandhi’s first actions in India (1915-1919)
In reaction to the Rowlatt Act, new repressive
legislation imposed by the Brit...
The campaign for independence
After the Amritsar massacre by British soldiers in 1919, he
launches the swaraj movement for...
For a transformation of Indian society
After the massacre of 22 policemen in Chauri-Chaura by angry
demonstrators, Gandhi ...
From the Salt March to the independence
From 12th
March to 6th
April 1930, Gandhi led the “Salt
March” from Ahmedabad to D...
From the Salt March to the independence
In September 1931, Gandhi went to London to participate in
the Round Table Confere...
De la marche du sel à l’indépendance
In 1936, the Congress (independence party) largely
wins Parliament elections.
In 1942...
India’s independence
Lord Mountbatten, new viceroy, is charged after the war,
by Prime Minister Clement Atlee, to grant In...
Gandhi’s assassination – His heritage
On 30th
January 1948, Gandhi is shot down in Delhi by
nationalist Hindu Nathuram God...
The choice of “modern” India
Very soon, namely because it did not follow the
Mahatma’s recommendations, the Congress
becom...
Gandhi : a few quotes
Nonviolence, a means and not an end
“ Nonviolence is my credo, the breath of my life. But I
have nev...
Nonviolence, a state of mind and a strength
“ It is not so much the British weapons that our responsible
for our submissio...
Nonviolence : from persuasion to constraint
according to Gandhi
“ If, in spite of all efforts, we cannot obtain from the
r...
Alter growth
according to Gandhi
• “ The Earth can produce enough to satisfy every man’s
needs, but it will never produce ...
Worrying for the poorest
according to Gandhi
The cow’s protection is “ the protection of all
life, of everything in this w...
Personal transformation and societal change
according to Gandhi
“ Be the change you want to see in the world ! ”
“True ind...
Pragmatism in action
Recognising one’s errors
according to Gandhi
“ It is my love for truth that has taught me the beauty
...
The place of women
according to Gandhi
“ If we mean by strength moral strength, then
women are infinitely superior to men....
Religion and spirituality
according to Gandhi
“ Make of us better Hindus, that will be more Christian than
trying to conve...
The relation between Man and animal
according to Gandhi
“ The cow is a poem of compassion. When I see a
cow, I do not see ...
Gandhi’s vision of history
according to Gandhi
“ When I despair, I remember that throughout history, the paths
to freedom ...
Books writen by Gandhi
Books about Gandhi
Livres about Gandhi
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Historical overwiew of nonviolence : 2 Gandhi

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Slideshows about nonviolence and nonviolent resolution of conflicts, economic alternatives, ecology, social change, spirituality : www.irnc.org , Slideshows in english

Life and thought of Mahatma Gandhi

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Historical overwiew of nonviolence : 2 Gandhi

  1. 1. Series: Historical overview of nonviolence Slides 2 Gandhi Étienne Godinot Translation : Claudia McKenny Engström - 28.05.2015
  2. 2. Gandhi’s youth Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 - 30 January 1948), Indian political leader, spiritual guide and leader of the independence movement in India, initiator of political nonviolence in history. Born in Pobandar, in Gujarat. Studies law in London, where he opened up to rationality and western efficiency, deepens his understanding of vegetarianism and Jainism (absolute respect for life), discovers other religions and spiritualities. Sent as lawyer in South Africa, English colony, he is kicked out of a train because non-White travelling in First class. Photos : - Student in London - In South Africa, 1895
  3. 3. Gandhi in South Africa (1893-1915) In 1894 he founds the Natal Indian Congress to defend the rights of Indians in South Africa, namely the right to vote. He creates an ambulance corps composed of volunteers during the 2nd Boers War, and creates in 1904 the newspaper Indian Opinion. Touched by John Ruskin’s Into this last, he creates the Tolstoy Farm, starts wearing the khadi (Indian dress) and participates in field work and latrines cleaning. During a meeting in Johannesburg in 1906, he recommends nonviolent resistance (satyagraha) against segregationist laws. Photos : -Gandhi and his wife Kasturbai in 1902 -John Ruskin.
  4. 4. Gandhi in South Africa (1893-1915) The fight for Indians’ and non-White’s rights (Chinese, etc.) lasts 7 years: strikes, refusal to register, destruction by fire of registration cards, imprisonment, etc. Civil disobedience culminates in 1913 with the minor’s strike and the march of Indian women. The victory of the anti-segregationists is acted on 30th June 1914 by the Gandhi Smuts agreement, agreement between Gandhi and General Smuts, governor of South Africa. Photos : - Gandhi in Johannesburg - General Jean Christiaan Smuts
  5. 5. Gandhi’s return to India (1915) Back in India, Gandhi has become famous. He travels around the country to encounter the Indian soul and know its real needs. He founds the Sabarmati ashram, close to Ahmedabad. England dominates over 300 million Indians with 2000 Indian civil service civil servants, 10 000 officers and 60 000 British soldiers, reinforced by 200 000 Indian soldiers, that is 1%. Gandhi states that British presence is made possible only thanks to the population’s collaboration: “Without our support, 100 000 Europeans couldn’t even hold a seventh of our villages”. Photos : -Indian civil service -Rudyard Kipling : “ The mission to govern India has been placed, by some impenetrable design of Providence, in the hands of the English race ” (1889).
  6. 6. Gandhi’s first actions in India (1915-1919) Gandhi organises the resistance of the landless farmers, serfs, indigo growers in Champaran (Bihar) and Kheda (Gujarat); he recommends the farmers tax strike in the Bombay region ruined by drought; he takes the side of textile factory workers in Ahmedabad. That is when he is called Mahatma (“ great soul ”) or Bapu (“ dad ”) and his celebrity grows in the whole country. Photos : - Indigo growers in Champaran - Gandhi in 1918 during the nonviolent actions in Champaran and Kheda
  7. 7. Gandhi’s first actions in India (1915-1919) In reaction to the Rowlatt Act, new repressive legislation imposed by the British in March 1919, he organises on 6th April 1919 a mourning day and total stop to all activities, a hartal that paralyses the whole country. - Publication of the Rowlatt Act in the press, repressive legislation carried out by the Imperial legislative council, inspired by commission presided by British judge Sydney Rowlatt. It authorises imprisonment without trial, for two years, of anyone suspected of terrorism or agitation. the Rowlatt Act and press laws will be abrogated in 1922. - Gandhi in 1922 at the Congress Party.
  8. 8. The campaign for independence After the Amritsar massacre by British soldiers in 1919, he launches the swaraj movement for economic and political independence, and becomes, in December 1921, executive leader of the Congress Party. He asks Indians to weave and wear the khadi, traditional dress, and boycott and burn English textile, courts, schools and soldiers, renounce titles and honours received from the coloniser. Millions of Indians answer his call, 50 000 are thrown into prison. •Photos - Amritsar massacre on 13th April 1919 by General Dyer’s soldiers: 379 dead, 1137 wounded for 1650 bullets shot… - Gandhi giving the example by weaving his clothes at home. The spinning wheel will become a symbol printed on the Indian flag.
  9. 9. For a transformation of Indian society After the massacre of 22 policemen in Chauri-Chaura by angry demonstrators, Gandhi stops the civil disobedience movement. He is tried and sentenced to 6 years imprisonment in 1922, a sentence he will not complete. From 1922 to 1928, he works to resolve the differences between Hindus and Muslims and within the Congress Party (fast for 3 weeks in 1924). But more importantly, he multiplies initiatives against segregation of the untouchables, the caste system, children’s marriage, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty, lack of hygiene. Photos - 3 weeks fast in 1924, next to Indira, Jawaharlal Nehru’s daughter. - Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956), defender on the untouchables (dalits). Opposed to Gandhi because he believes the cast system is co-substantial to Hinduism, he converts to Buddhism and invites dalits to do the same.
  10. 10. From the Salt March to the independence From 12th March to 6th April 1930, Gandhi led the “Salt March” from Ahmedabad to Dandi (400 km) to protest against taxes on salt, incite Indians to collect salt themselves, pacifically invest salt mines. 60 000 Indians were imprisoned. In October 1930, the Congress decides a tax strike. In January 1931, the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, liberated Congress leaders and invited Gandhi to negotiate. In April, he freed all political prisoners and abolished laws on salt. Gandhi ends civil disobedience. Photos - Salt March - The Gandhi-Irwin Pact Cf. Detailed Slides on the same subject in the series “Nonviolent Marches”.
  11. 11. From the Salt March to the independence In September 1931, Gandhi went to London to participate in the Round Table Conference, but came back “empty handed”. Some months later, the new conservative government in London, led by Winston Churchill, gave the order to crush the Congress. Again, 100 000 Indians were imprisoned. In May 1933, Gandhi started a fast that would last 21 days to support the Untouchables. Photos - Round Table Conference in 1931 - During his 3 months stay in Europe after the Round Table Conference, Gandhi met Romain Rolland
  12. 12. De la marche du sel à l’indépendance In 1936, the Congress (independence party) largely wins Parliament elections. In 1942, while England in engaged in the Second World War, Gandhi organises a new civil disobedience campaign and calls to “ Quit India ! ”. As for all Congress leaders, he is arrested on 9th August 1942 and is detained for 2 years in the Agha Khan Palace in Poona. He will have spent 6 years of his life in prison. Photos - A demonstration during the Quit India! Campaign - Gandhi at the end of his life.
  13. 13. India’s independence Lord Mountbatten, new viceroy, is charged after the war, by Prime Minister Clement Atlee, to grant India independence. It is celebrated on 15th August 1947, but two States, Pakistan (Muslim) and the secular Indian Union. This “vivisection”, achieved by Muslim Muhammad Ali Jinnah (photo above), but which Gandhi opposes. It will lead to new popular movements and massacres of incredible savagery. On 13th January 1948, at the age of 78, Gandhi launches his last fast in Delhi to ask for the end of violence between religious communities.
  14. 14. Gandhi’s assassination – His heritage On 30th January 1948, Gandhi is shot down in Delhi by nationalist Hindu Nathuram Godse. Two million Indians take part in his funeral. When Nehru’s and other leaders’ objective was to get rid of the British and achieve national independence, Gandhi wanted to free the Indians from all forms of alienation and oppression that weighed on them, and that was not due to British occupation. Photos - Gandhi before his incineration - Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
  15. 15. The choice of “modern” India Very soon, namely because it did not follow the Mahatma’s recommendations, the Congress becomes a despotic party and India a bureaucracy, and at the same time, a nuclear and military power. Nehru axes India’s growth on industry, an economy that does not suit a population rural at 82%. Jayaprakash Narajan, “JP”, tries to remind leaders and the population of Gandhi’s ideals and will become the true political conscience of India. He is imprisoned by Indira Gandhi in 1975… Photos : -Indian Nuclear trials in May 1974 in the Thar desert in Rajasthan -- JP Narayan
  16. 16. Gandhi : a few quotes Nonviolence, a means and not an end “ Nonviolence is my credo, the breath of my life. But I have never presented it in India or elsewhere as such, except during informal conversation. I have proposed it to the Congress as political method, destined to solve political issues. It is possible that it is a new method, but it does not make it loose its political traits ”. The new resistance movement “ is not so much about taking the power from the British but to organise Indian’s power ”.
  17. 17. Nonviolence, a state of mind and a strength “ It is not so much the British weapons that our responsible for our submission as our voluntary cooperation ”. “ There exists the same intangible link between means and end as in seed and tree ”. “ In face with convincing arguments or not, Great-Britain will defend its interest with all the strength it disposes of. India, in consequence, must accumulate enough strength to free itself from death’s embrace ”. Photos : -Departure of the Larzac-Paris march in November 1978 -Janadesh March, Ekta Parishad Movement in 2007.
  18. 18. Nonviolence : from persuasion to constraint according to Gandhi “ If, in spite of all efforts, we cannot obtain from the richest that they protect the poor, if the latter are more and more oppressed to the point they die of hunger, what to do ? It is by trying to find an answer to this question that means of non-cooperation and civil disobedience came to me as the only ones that are just and efficient ”. Photos : - The Salt March in 1930 - Gandhi in London, explained to English workers why he boycotted textile produced in Great-Britain.
  19. 19. Alter growth according to Gandhi • “ The Earth can produce enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but it will never produce enough to satisfy every man’s greed ”. • “ Living simply for all to live simply ”. • “ Get rid of misery, cultivate sobriety ! ” • “ Do not promote mass production, but production for masses ”.
  20. 20. Worrying for the poorest according to Gandhi The cow’s protection is “ the protection of all life, of everything in this world that is weak and harmless ”. “ Remember the face of the poorest and weakest man you ever met, and ask yourself if the action you intend to commit would be useful to him (…). Will that lead to the liberation of the multitude who starves, in body and spirit ? ”
  21. 21. Personal transformation and societal change according to Gandhi “ Be the change you want to see in the world ! ” “True independence will not be achieved by a handful, but by the power of all those who oppose abuse of power. In other words, we will reach independence by convincing the masses that they have the possibility to exercise power and hold it in respect ”. Photo : Boycott of South African oranges during the apartheid.
  22. 22. Pragmatism in action Recognising one’s errors according to Gandhi “ It is my love for truth that has taught me the beauty of compromise ”. “ This error seemed to me, in its size, big like the Himalayas. Before a people can proceed with civil disobedience, it must understand fully its intimate meaning ”. Photos : -Gandhi picking salt on a beach in Dandi -Montgomerry bus boycott in 1955 by civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King.
  23. 23. The place of women according to Gandhi “ If we mean by strength moral strength, then women are infinitely superior to men. Don’t they have greater intuition, an increased sense of sacrifice, greater capacity for endurance, greater courage ? (…). If nonviolence is the law of our being, the future belongs to women.”
  24. 24. Religion and spirituality according to Gandhi “ Make of us better Hindus, that will be more Christian than trying to convert us ! ” “ It is more just to say that truth is God, than to say God is truth ”. “ Religion is one tree with many branches. If we only see the branches, we are tempted to say there are many religions; but if we look at the tree as a whole, we understand there is only one religion ”. “ The best way to know God is to practice nonviolence ”. Photos : - Henri le Saux, Dominican who, after having met spiritual Tamul Gnanananda, tookthe name Abhishiktananda (“the one who pouts joy in ointment”) - Symbols of the great religions and spiritualities.
  25. 25. The relation between Man and animal according to Gandhi “ The cow is a poem of compassion. When I see a cow, I do not see an animal that must be eaten (…). I worship it and will defend this worshipping throughout the world. I believe in the cow’s protection in a wider meaning than the one given to it today (…). It is the protection of all life that is weak and harmless. The cow’s protection means the protection of all mute creatures created by God. Inferior species’ call is louder because it is mute… The cow’s protection means fraternity between men and animals ”.
  26. 26. Gandhi’s vision of history according to Gandhi “ When I despair, I remember that throughout history, the paths to freedom and goodness have always triumphed. There have been tyrants and murderers, who sometimes have seemed invincible, but in the end, they always fell ”. This ideal, he said with humour, is “ the one of a fool ”… Photos - Nelson Mandela - Aung San Suu Kyi ▪
  27. 27. Books writen by Gandhi
  28. 28. Books about Gandhi
  29. 29. Livres about Gandhi

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