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Antonio Casilli -- Digital labor studies : Antécédents théoriques et nouvelles tendances

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Intervention d'Antonio Casilli (Télécom ParisTech/EHESS) dans le cadre du séminaire EHESS "Etudier les cultures du numérique", 2 nov. 2015.

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Antonio Casilli -- Digital labor studies : Antécédents théoriques et nouvelles tendances

  1. 1. Digital labor studies Antécédents théoriques et nouvelles tendances Antonio A. Casilli
  2. 2. • Un domaine de recherche en pleine éclosion
  3. 3. Travail invisible Travail immatériel Travail du consommateur Travail des publics DIGITAL LABOR • Antécédents théoriques
  4. 4. Circonscrire l’objet: Envisager – Les contenus générés par les utilisateurs – Les métadonnées extraites à partir des utilisateurs sous l’angle du « travail implicite »…
  5. 5. • Coproduction de valeur sur les plateformes numériques et les médias sociaux • Pas limitée aux industries culturelles • En large partie, des activités inséparables du loisir, du partage ou de la sociabilité
  6. 6. • En ligne de tendance, contributions à faible intensité et à faible niveau de spécialisation • Extraction de valeur à partir du graphe social même des utilisateurs • Nouveau régime de valeur : de la valorisation des biens à la valorisation des liens (Laurent Gille)
  7. 7. Pourquoi parle-t-on de travail ? 4 critères • Des activités qui produisent de la valeur (monétisation des données, enchères en temps réel) • Encadrées d’un point de vue contractuel (CGU, standards de la communauté) • Sujettes à des métriques de performance (followers, shares, likes, scores) • Soumises à des formes d’injonction (invitations, alertes, notifications)
  8. 8. « Dans le futur il n’y aura que deux métiers : entraîneur d’algorithmes ou dompteur d’algorithmes. » • Chaque utilisateur des plateformes numériques entraîne les algorithmes de tri, référencement, matching
  9. 9. • ReCAPTCHA utilisé pour entraîner la reconnaissance textuelle de Google Books • NoCAPTCHA ReCAPTCHA pour entraîner la reconnaissance d’images • Performer une tache à la place d’un bot, pour préparer l’automatisation de la tâche même
  10. 10. • Important : Matérialiser le digital labor en portant notre regard sur les plateformes collaboratives (« sharing », « gig », ou « on-demand economy »)
  11. 11. • Uber : chaque chauffeur est un aussi un travailleur du dashboard • Evaluation constante de la performance via des outils de visualisation et gestion du profil en ligne
  12. 12. • Uber is not about driving : les chauffeurs les mieux notés (et mieux payés) sont ceux qui renseignent leur bio, choisissent bien leur photo, échangent avec les autres membres • Travail numérique immatériel qui s’ajoute au travail matériel
  13. 13. • Mais les passagers aussi doivent soigner leur profil, leur réputation, évaluer, laisser des commentaires • Si le score du passager passe en dessous de 4,5 le service devient plus cher et moins performant
  14. 14. Réinterroger la notion de travail : • Brouillage de la frontière temps de travail/temps de vie – Hyperemploi (Ian Bogost) – Playbor (play + labor) (Julian Kücklich) – Weisure (work + leisure) (Dalton Conley) • Du « 3x8 » au « 3x24 » • Le travail se glisse dans les interstices de la vie (sommeil, pauses, repas…)
  15. 15. Pré-conditions de l’’émergence du digital labor : les “trois ratios”
  16. 16. 1) Changement du ratio création de valeur/captation de valeur dans les modèles d’affaires
  17. 17. 2) Changement du ratio internet de publication/internet d’émission
  18. 18. D’un paradigme de mobilisation de la volonté de l’usager…
  19. 19. ..à un environnement où les données sont extraites
  20. 20. ..et l’usager n’est qu’un "hotspot de l’info"
  21. 21. 3) Changement du ratio emploi formel/travail implicite
  22. 22. Les plateformes numériques agissent en tant que mécanismes de coordination d’acteurs sociaux…
  23. 23. ..qui réalisent une externalisation de la force de travail (crowding out)…
  24. 24. ..pour ensuite coordonner l’intérieur (employés formels) et l’extérieur (usagers/coproducteurs)
  25. 25. • Digital labor ≠ crowdsourcing • Crowdsourcing : contributions expertes + rémunération basée sur un mécanisme de « tournoi » (tous participent, un seul est payé)… • Digital labor = agrégation de tâches déspécialisées, micro- rémunérées ou non rémunérées
  26. 26. • Le digital labor se situe sur un continuum entre tâches complexes et tâches « émiettées »
  27. 27. • Le digital labor se situe aussi sur un continuum entre travail non rémunéré et travail rémunéré par micro- paiements • Exemple : Amazon Mechanical Turk • « Artificial artificial intelligence » : tâches qui ne peuvent pas être réalisées par les AI
  28. 28. • Tagguer des images, regarder des vidéos, cliquer sur des liens, écrire des commentaires… • Quelle différence entre l’activité sur AMT et celle sur une plateforme sociale ? • Ici, on reçoit une fiche de micro-paie à la fin du mois
  29. 29. • Types de luttes liées au digital labor
  30. 30. • Conflits relatifs à la rémunération des contenus générés par les utilisateurs et des données personnelles • Recours collectifs contre l’utilisation de données personnelles pour sponsored stories • Class action de2014 : 25 000 utilisateurs de FB demandent 500€ chacun–compensation symbolique pour les données personnelles exploitées
  31. 31. • Conflits qui peuvent se manifester sous forme de collectivisation forcée de données des plateformes (leaking) • Actions illégales souvent en réaction à la monétisation des contenus des usagers
  32. 32. • Luttes centrées sur les conditions de travail des plateformes numériques collaboratives et de micro- travail (ex: Homejoy) • Le syndicat allemand IG Metall lance la plateforme pour évaluer les plateformes de micro- travail • Expérience de Turkopticon et de Dynamo, syndicat des travailleurs de Amazon Mechanical Turk
  33. 33. • Convergence des luttes • Syndicalisation croissante des travailleurs des plateformes (cf Uber) • Articulation (parfois conflictuelle) avec les syndicats classiques • Mise en place d’un “coopérativisme des plateformes” ?
  34. 34. • Attention croissante aux "travailleurs des clics" (clickfarms, micro-travail) des pays en développement • Articulation des luttes globales pour les conditions de travail sur les plateformes entre Nord et Sud
  35. 35. • Education et sensibilisation : à travers la gamification (cf. The Work We Want)
  36. 36. • Education et sensibilisation : Le manifeste Wages for Facebook de Laurel Ptak
  37. 37. • Education et sensibilisation : interventions artistiques (Unfit bits : comment arnaquer les assurances qui imposent bracelets connectés)
  38. 38. Merci! acasilli [at] ehess [point] fr @AntonioCasilli

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